The 2023 Captive-bred Marine Fish List is here!
The 2023 Captive-bred Marine Fish List is here!

CORAL Magazine SPECIAL REPORT: The State of the Marine Breeders’ Art, 2023

by Tal Sweet and Matt Pedersen

CORAL Magazine’s Updated Listing of captive-bred marine aquarium fish species, current through early October 2023

Excerpt from the November/December issue of CORAL Magazine – subscribe today!

Back in 2019, we had no clue what was coming. Things were moving along swimmingly and then a pandemic slammed humankind and brought everything to a screeching halt. For several months the whole world shut down, followed by many more months of uncertainty, but our fish didn’t care and kept on doing what fish do when they’re happy—they bred!

It has now been four years since our last update to the list of captive-bred marine aquarium fishes, so there is a lot of catching up to do. While there have been some setbacks for the hobby overall, captive breeding of marine fishes is still alive and well. At the time of publication, we found 70 new and overlooked species firsts! This might not seem like a lot for four years, but we’ve faced many challenges since 2019.

When we published the last list in 2019, we were starting to see a trend toward world-first successes being led by private companies and larger institutions. It’s not entirely clear whether this trend had to do with larger budgets, or simply the ability to work with species that require larger water volumes to be successful. One possibility is that hobbyists see the big companies doing it and don’t feel like they can compete. Regardless, the trend has continued.

Masked Swallowtail Angelfish (Genicanthus semifasciatus), male. Image Credit: Chonlasub Woravichan/Shutterstock

Where are all the hobbyist firsts?

One thing we must keep in mind is the fact that many of the easier-to-breed species have been conquered at this point. The aquarium hobby, and marine fish breeding, has progressed into tackling the more challenging species. Successful first breeding of new marine aquarium fish species predominantly requires first-foods that are more readily available than they were five or ten years ago; many of these breakthroughs can be traced primarily to the utilization of the nauplii of Parvocalanus crassirostris, which are themselves a challenging live food to produce. When comparing many of the species and families of marine fishes that offer new ground, there are many generalizations that can be made.

Breeding clownfish and other species that are considered easy can be accomplished in tanks as small as 10 gallons (37 L). More difficult species like tangs and larger angelfishes need large volumes of water and are often bred in ponds several hundred to several thousand gallons in size. These large vessels require more space than the average hobbyist has access to.

Another factor that pushes a particular species to be considered more difficult is a longer larval phase. Clownfish and other easy fish can settle out of the larval stage in a week or two. However, most of the yet-to-be-bred species are known pelagic spawners, which equates to tiny larvae and extended larval periods, potentially several weeks or even months, before reaching settlement stages. The planktonic larval stages of many marine fish represent a particularly challenging and more error-prone life stage, which is why shorter larval durations generally correlate with a species being easier to rear.

The larval foods required to rear these “untamed” marine aquarium fish species can be more complicated when compared to rotifers and large copepods. Fortunately, aquarists now have a much larger variety of copepods and phytoplankton available than we had in the past. This is in large part thanks to companies like Reed Mariculture/Reef Nutrition and AlgaGen who have been working with copepod and phytoplankton cultures for decades. Even if you can get your hands on the starter cultures, it’s not simply enough to have a couple 5-gallon (19-L) buckets of food cultures. Consider the lessons shared by Till Deuss and Adam Heinrich who discussed the first successful breeding of the Chalk Bass (Serranus tortugarum) in this issue (page 96). They suggest it may take 900 gallons (3,400 L) of copepod cultures to rear approximately 50 juvenile Chalk Bass! This is something that the typical hobbyist can’t realistically accomplish.

Fundamentally, the way to address most of these challenges involves time and money, potentially in quantities that the home hobbyist cannot justify. This is where companies and institutions come into play. Hobbyists often wonder why some captive-bred fish cost more than their wild-caught counterparts. It takes a lot of time, often a team of dedicated specialists, and significant financial outlay over multiple years to produce these more difficult species. Purchasing a captive-bred tang or angelfish may seem like a large investment, but you get more than just a fish that’s better suited to live in your aquarium; you’re supporting the work that went into creating this fish as well as other species that are not yet being captive-bred.

If the late 1990s through to the early 2010s were the time for home aquarists to make great strides in marine fish breeding, it could be said that the last 10 years have seen a shift towards larger commercial players taking center stage and bringing new captive-bred species into the marine aquarium trade. Some of these species should have been expected, such as the humble Lawnmower Blenny (Salarias fasciatus) from Biota. Other species breakthroughs have been more surprising, like the Copperband Butterflyfish (Chelmon rostratus) produced by a team led by Dr. Cortney Ohs working with the University of Florida and Rising Tide Conservation. Angelfish production seems to be skyrocketing thanks to the work of Wen-Ping Su and Bali Aquarich. While we don’t consider hybrids to represent a species-first for obvious reasons, the diversity of new captive-bred fish that have no wild counterpart is growing exponentially.

Poma Lab’s suspected new hybrid of a Tiger Angelfish (Apolemichthys kingi) and the Regal Angelfish (Pygoplites diacanthus).
Poma Lab’s suspected new hybrid of a Tiger Angelfish (Apolemichthys kingi) and the Regal Angelfish (Pygoplites diacanthus). Image credit: Dr. Matthew L. Wittenrich/Poma Labs

There is always room to specialize, and perhaps no one illustrates that better than the Biota Group. While Biota’s network of breeding stations around the globe is producing an impressive diversity of species, Biota single-handedly added 11 species of gobies to our list in the span of just four years. Bocas Mariculture restricts the species they cultivate to those that are native to their location in Panama. That mandate has resulted in a regional focus on novel species that perhaps otherwise would have gone completely unexamined.

In some cases, home aquarists still have a chance to claim a species first. One of the tricks of the trade has always been to look at species that have already been bred, find related species that haven’t, and then apply what works for the known species to the new one. Of course, as more species firsts are claimed, the ones that remain are often species that are difficult or even impossible to come by. Commercial entities have learned this too, perhaps none better than De Jong Marinelife who has been able to claim multiple coveted species firsts by having the connections and resources to obtain rare broodstock when the opportunities arise. We can thank them for producing both the Oman Clownfish (Amphiprion omanensis) and the Circled Dragonet (Synchiropus circularis), along with the completely surprising new White-nosed Dottyback (Pseudochromis leucorhynchus).

What does the future hold?

It is difficult to predict what will happen next, but as long as the hobby remains active there will be a need for livestock. As captive-bred fish become more accessible, and people realize the benefits of owning captive-bred livestock, there will be ever more demand. We must also be mindful of the need for sustainably-collected fish from the wild. Captive-bred and wild-caught sources are not mutually exclusive; we need both to maintain genetic diversity as well as support local fisheries in developing countries that rely on these valuable exports.

While we don’t cover it in this list, the sexual reproduction of corals (rather than just fragging them) is primed to become the new frontier of captive-breeding. The research being done by Dr. Jamie Craggs and his crew at the Horniman Museum in the UK has shown that sexual reproduction of corals is well within the realm of possibility for larger institutions, companies, and even home hobbyists!

If you want to keep your hobby viable and fun you should consider supporting captive-bred aquaculture as well as sustainably-sourced wild-caught animals. If you have the ability and inclination to propagate fish and/or corals, you should do so. There are many species that can be bred, and have been bred, but aren’t being produced by commercial breeders, meaning there is still a lot of opportunity for small-scale, home-based marine fish breeding if you know where to look. Consider the very recent success of aquarist David Sowash, who just claimed an astonishing species first with the Dancer Shrimp Goby, better known as the Whitecap Goby (Lotilia klausewitzi). Someone had to do it! There can’t be a positive result without taking the initiative.

By The Numbers

The 2023 list adds 7 species of angelfish, 4 anthias, 1 reef bass, 7 blennies, 1 butterflyfish, 2 cardinalfishes, 1 clownfish, 5 damselfishes, 2 dottybacks, 1 dragonet, 1 frogfish, 2 fusiliers, 17 gobies, 1 gramma, 1 grunt, 1 hamlet, 3 pipefishes, 1 comet, 3 snappers, 2 stripeys, 1 stonefish, 1 sweeper, 1 thread bream, and 4 wrasses. This brings the total number of marine aquarium fishes that have been successfully bred in captivity, at least one time, to 468.

In summary:

Bali Aquarich

  • Centropyge aurantia, Golden Angelfish
  • Choerodon fasciatus, Harlequin Tusk
  • Holacanthus bermudensis, Blue Angelfish
  • Pomacanthus imperator, Emperor Angelfish

Biota Group

  • Amblygobius buanensis, Buan Nano Sand Goby
  • Coris gaimard, Red Coris Wrasse
  • Corythoichthys amplexus, Brown-banded Pipefish (2014-2015)
  • Dischistodus perspicillatus, White Damselfish
  • Eviota brahmi, Brahm’s Nano Goby
  • Eviota guttata, Spotted Dwarfgoby
  • Eviota lachdeberei, Cosmic Goby
  • Eviota prasina, Greenbubble Dwarfgoby
  • Eviota prasites, Hairfin Dwarfgoby
  • Eviota queenslandica, Queensland Dwarfgoby
  • Eviota storthynx, Storthynx Dwarfgoby
  • Genicanthus semifasciatus, Masked Swallowtail Angelfish
  • Lutjanus bohar, Two-spot Red Snapper
  • Neopomacentrus azysron, Yellow Lyretail Damselfish
  • Ostohinchus angustatus, Broadstriped Cardinalfish (2014-2015)
  • Ostorhinchus sealei, Seal’s Cardinalfish
  • Pseudanthias calloura, Aurora Anthias
  • Pseudanthias pascalus, Purple Queen Anthias
  • Pseudoplesiops typus, Ring Eyed Dottyback
  • Salarias fasciatus, Lawnmower Blenny
  • Trimma annosum, Greybearded Pygmy Goby
  • Trimma kitrinum, Citron Pygmy Goby
  • Trimma macrophthalmus, Large-eye Pygmy Goby

Bocas Mariculture

  • Elacatinus illecebrosus, Barsnout Goby
  • Gobiosoma hildebrandi, Hildebrand’s Goby
  • Hypleurochilus pseudoaequipinnis, Atlantic Oyster Blenny
  • Hypoplectrus nigricans, Black Hamlet
  • Hypsoblennius invemar, Invemar Blenny
  • Lophogobius cyprinoides, Crested Goby
  • Serranus tortugarum, Chalk Bass
  • Tigrigobius panamensis, Panamanian Green Banded Goby

California Academy of Sciences

  • Bodianus axillaris, Axilspot Hogfish
  • Corythoichthys intestinalis, Scribbled Pipefish

Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute (CMFRI)

  • Pseudanthias marcia, Marcia’s Anthias

David Sowash

  • Lotilia klausewitzi, Whitecap or Dancer Shrimp Goby

De Jong Marinelife Nursery

  • Amphiprion omanensis, Oman Clownfish
  • Calloplesiops argus, Finespotted Comet
  • Pseudochromis leucorhynchus, White-nosed Dottyback
  • Solenostomus paradoxus, Ornate Ghost Pipefish
  • Synchiropus circularis, Circled Dragonet

Fisheye Aquaculture

  • Microcanthus joyceae, East Australian Stripey
  • Ocyurus chrysurus, Yellowtail Snapper

Karen Brittain

  • Apolemichthys griffisi, Griffis Angelfish (2018)

Marineland of Antibes, Oceanographic Museum of Monaco, and Océanopolis Brest (collaborative project)

  • Parapriacanthus ransonneti, Golden Sweeper

My Ecoreef Solutions

  • Pseudanthias evansi, Yellowback Anthias

Nausicaá – Centre national de la Mer

  • Caesio cuning, Red Belly Yellow Tail Fusilier

Ocean Park Hong Kong

  • Microcanthus strigatus, Stripey
  • Parapristipoma trilineatum, Chicken Grunt
  • Caesio teres, Yellow and Blueback Fusilier

ORA (Oceans, Reefs and Aquariums)

  • Coryphopterus lipernes, Peppermint Goby
  • Dascyllus auripinnis, Golden Domino Damselfish
  • Pomacentrus smithi, Pink Smith Damselfish

Pei-Sheng Chiu and colleagues (Fisheries Research Institute)

  • Omobranchus fasciolatoceps, Top Hat Blenny
  • Omobranchus ferox, Gossamer Blenny
  • Omobranchus punctatus, Spotted Oyster Blenny

Piscicultura Tanganyika

  • Gramma brasiliensis, Brazilian or Emperor Gramma

Poma Labs

  • Apolemichthys kingi, Tiger Angelfish
  • Holacanthus africanus, West African Angelfish


  • Lutjanus synagris, Candy or Lane Snapper
  • Pentapodus emeryii, Banana Fish or Double Whiptail

QM Labs (Quality Marine)

  • Chromis amboinensis, Ambon Chromis
  • Ecsenius pulcher, Gulf Blenny

University of Florida/Rising Tide Conservation

  • Bodianus bimaculatus, Candy Hogfish
  • Chelmon rostratus, Copperband Butterflyfish

uShaka Marine World

  • Synanceia verrucosa, Stonefish

Unattributed, overlooked, or historical accomplishments:

  • Lophiocharon lithinostomus, Marble-mouthed Frogfish (earliest documented successes predate 2008)

The new 2023 Captive Bred Marine Fish Species List now supersedes the 2019 list, the 2018 list, the 2017 listthe 2016 listthe 2015 list, the 2014 list, and the 2013 list.

Orange Common Name = New to the list this year

Angelfishes (Pomacanthidae)

Apolemichthys arcuatus, Bandit Angelfish

Apolemichthys griffisi, Griffis Angelfish

Apolemichthys kingi, Tiger Angelfish

Apolemichthys trimaculatus, Flagfin Angelfish

Apolemichthys xanthopunctatus, Goldflake Angelfish

Apolemichthys xanthurus, Cream Angelfish

Centropyge acanthops, African Pygmy Angelfish

Centropyge aurantia, Golden Angelfish

Centropyge argi, Cherub Angelfish

Centropyge bicolor, Bicolor Angelfish

Centropyge bispinosa, Coral Beauty Angelfish

Centropyge colini,  Collins or Cocos Keeling Angelfish

Centropyge debelius, Debelius Angelfish

Centropyge eibli, Blacktail Angelfish

Centropyge fisheri, Fisher’s Angelfish

Centropyge flavissima, Lemonpeel Angelfish

Centropyge interruptus, Japanese Pygmy Angel

Centropyge joculator, Joculator Angelfish

Centropyge loricula, Flame Angelfish

Centropyge multicolor, Multicolor Angelfish

Centropyge potteri, Potter’s Angelfish

Centropyge resplendens, Resplendent Angelfish

Chaetodontoplus caeruleopunctatus, Bluespotted Angelfish

Chaetodontoplus cephalareticulatus, Maze Angelfish

Chaetodontoplus conspicillatus, Conspicuous Angelfish

Chaetodonotplus duboulayi, Scribbled Angelfish

Chaetodonotplus melasoma, Grey Poma or Black Velvet Angelfish

Chaetodonotplus meridethi, False Personifer Angelfish

Chaetodontoplus mesoleucus, Singapore Angelfish

Chaetodontoplus personifer, Personifer Angelfish

Chaetodontoplus septentrionalis, Bluestriped Angelfish

Chaetodontoplus sp., Black Phantom Angelfish

Genicanthus bellus, Ornate Angelfish

Genicanthus lamark, Lamark’s Angelfish

Genicanthus melanospilos, Swallowtail Angelfish

Genicanthus personatus, Masked Angelfish

Genicanthus semifasciatus, Masked Swallowtail Angelfish

Genicanthus watenabei, Blackedged Angelfish

Holacanthus africanus, West African Angelfish

Holacanthus bermudensis, Blue Angelfish

Holacanthus clarionensis, Clarion Angelfish

Holacanthus passer, Passer or King Angelfish

Holacanthus tricolor, Rock Beauty Angelfish

Paracentropyge multifasciata, Multibar Angelfish

Paracentropyge venusta, Purplemask Angelfish

Pomacanthus annularis, Annularis Angelfish

Pomacanthus arcuatus, Gray Angelfish

Pomacanthus asfur, Asfur Angelfish

Pomacanthus imperator, Emperor Angelfish

Pomacanthus maculosus, Yellowbar Angelfish

Pomacanthus navarchus, Majestic or Blue Girdled Angelfish

Pomacanthus paru, French Angelfish

Pomacanthus semicirculatus, Semicircle Angelfish

Pomacanthus sexstriatus, Sixbar Angelfish

Pomacanthus zonipectus, Cortez Angelfish

Pygoplites diacanthus, Regal Angelfish

Anthias (Serranidae)

Odotanthias borbonius, Borbonius Anthias

Odontanthias fuscipinnis, Hawaiian Yellow Anthias

Pseudanthias calloura, Aurora Anthias

Pseudanthias evansi, Yellowback Anthias

Pseudanthias hypselosoma, Stocky Anthias

Pseudanthias marcia, Marcia’s Anthias

Pseudanthias pascalus, Purple Queen Anthias

Pseudanthias pleurotaenia, Squarespot Anthias

Pseudanthias squamipinnis, Lyretail Anthias

Assessors (Plesiopidae) 

Assessor flavissimus, Yellow Assessor

Assessor macneilli, Blue Assessor

Assessor randalli, Randal’s Assessor

Basslets (Serranidae) 

Liopropoma carmabi, Candy Basslet

Liopropoma rubre, Swissguard Basslet

Rainfordia opercularis, Flathead Perch

Serranus subligarius, Belted Sandfish

Serranus tortugarum, Chalk Bass

Batfishes (Ephippidae) 

Chaetodipterus faber, Atlantic Spadefish

Platax bativianus, Zebra Batfish

Platax orbicularis, Orbiculate Batfish

Platax pinnatus, Pinnatus Batfish

Platax teira, Longfin Batfish

Blennies (Blenniidae) 

Chasmodes bosquianus, Striped Blenny

Ecsenius gravieri, Red Sea Mimic Blenny

Ecsenius bicolor, Bicolor Blenny

Ecsenius namiyei, Black Comb-tooth Blenny

Ecsenius pulcher, Gulf Blenny

Enchelyurus flavipes, Goldentail Comb-Tooth Blenny

Hypleurochilus multifilis, Featherduster Blenny

Hypleurochilus pseudoaequipinnis, Atlantic Oyster Blenny

Hypsoblennius hentz, Feather Blenny

Hypsoblennius invemar, Invemar Blenny

Meiacanthus atrodorsalis, Forktail Blenny

Meiacanthus bundoon, Bundoon Blenny

Meiacanthus grammistes, Striped Fang Blenny

Meicanthus kamohari, Kamohara Blenny

Meiacanthus mossambicus, Mozambique Fang Blenny

Meiacanthus nigrolineatus, Blackline Fang Blenny

Meiacanthus oualanensis, Canary Fang Blenny

Meiacanthus smithi, Disco Blenny

Meiacanthus tongaensis, Fang Blenny (Tonga)

Omobranchus fasciolatoceps, Top Hat Blenny

Omobranchus ferox, Gossamer Blenny

Omobranchus punctatus, Spotted Oyster Blenny

Parablennius marmoreus, Seaweed Blenny

Petroscirtes breviceps, Mimic Fang Blenny

Salaria pavo, Peacock Blenny

Salarias fasciatus, Lawnmower Blenny

Scartella cristata, Molly Miller Blenny

Boxfishes (Ostraciidae)

Acanthostracion quadricornis, Scrawled Cowfish

Brotulas, viviparous (Bythitidae)

Stygnobrotula latebricola, Black Brotula 

Butterflyfishes (Chaetodontidae)

Chaetodon klienii, Klien’s, Orange or Sunburst Butterflyfish

Chaetodon milliaris, Milletseed or Lemon Butterflyfish

Chaetodon sedentarius, Reef Butterflyfish

Chaetodon striatus, Banded Butterflyfish

Chelmon rostratus, Copperband Butterflyfish

Forcipiger flavissimus, Longnose Butterflyfish

Parachaetodon ocellatus, Kite Butterflyfish

Cardinalfishes (Apogonidae)

Apogon notatus, Spotnape Cardinalfish

Apogonichthyoides melas, Black Cardinalfish

Apogonichthyoides nigripinnis, Bullseye Cardinalfish

Cheilodipterus quinquelineatus, Five-Lined Cardinalfish

Fowleria flammea, Red Stop Light Cardinalfish

Nectamia bandanensis, Bigeye Cardinalfish

Ostohinchus angustatus, Broadstriped Cardinalfish

Ostorhinchus compressus, Ochre-Striped Cardinalfish

Ostorhinchus cyanosoma, Yellow-Striped Cardinalfish

Ostorhinchus luteus, Yellow Cardinalfish

Ostorhinchus margaritophorus, Copper Lined Cardinalfish

Ostorhinchus quadrifasciatus, Two-Striped Cardinalfish

Ostorhinchus sealei, Seal’s Cardinalfish

Pterapogon kauderni, Banggai Cardinalfish

Pterapogon mirifica, Sailfin Cardinalfish

Sphaeramia nematoptera, Pajama Cardinalfish

Sphaeramia orbicularis, Orbic Cardinalfish

Zoramia leptacantha, Threadfin Cardinalfish

Catfishes, Marine (Plotosidae)

Plotosus lineatus, Striped Eel Catfish

Clingfishes (Gobiesocidae) 

Gobiesox punctulatus, Stippled Clingfish

Gobiesox strumosus, Skilletfish

Clownfishes (Pomacentridae) 

Amphiprion akallopisos, Skunk Clownfish

Amphiprion akindynos, Barrier Reef Clownfish

Amphiprion allardi, Allard’s Clownfish

Amphiprion barberi, Fiji Barberi Clownfish

Amphiprion (formerly Premnas) biaculeatus, Maroon Clownfish

Amphiprion bicinctus, Red Sea (Two-Barred) Clownfish

Amphiprion chrysogaster, Mauritian Clownfish

Amphiprion chrysopterus, Orangefin/Bluestripe Anemonefish

Amphiprion clarkii, Clarkii Clownfish

Amphiprion ephippium, Red Saddleback Clownfish

Amphiprion frenatus, Tomato Clownfish

Amphiprion latezonatus, Wide Band Clownfish

Amphiprion latifasciatus, Madagascar Clownfish

Amphiprion leucokranos, Whitebonnet Clownfish

Amphiprion mccullochi, McCulloch’s Clownfish

Amphiprion melanopus, Cinnamon Clownfish

Amphiprion nigripes, Blackfinned Clownfish

Amphiprion ocellaris, Ocellaris Clownfish

Amphiprion omanensis, Oman Clownfish

Amphiprion percula, Percula Clownfish

Amphiprion perideraion, Pink Skunk Clownfish

Amphiprion polymnus, Saddleback Clownfish

Amphiprion rubrocinctus, Australian Clownfish

Amphiprion sandaracinos, Orange Skunk Clownfish

Amphiprion sebae, Sebae Clownfish

Amphiprion tricinctus, Three-Band Clownfish

Convict Blennies (Pholidichthyidae) 

Pholidichthys leucotaenia, Convict Blenny, Engineer Goby

Damselfishes (Pomacentridae)

Abudefduf saxatilis, Sergeant Major

Acanthochromis polyacanthus, Orange Line Chromis

Amblyglyphidodon aureus, Golden Damselfish

Amphyglyphidodon curacao, Staghorn Damselfish

Amblyglyphidodon leucogaster, Yellow-belly Damselfish

Amblyglyphidodon ternatensis, Ternate Damselfish

Chromis amboinensis, Ambon Chromis

Chromis cyaneus, Caribbean Blue Reef Chromis

Chromis multilineata, Brown Chromis

Chromis nitida, Barrier Reef Chromis

Chromis viridis, Blue Green Chromis

Chrysiptera cyanea, Blue Devil Damselfish

Chrysiptera hemicyanea, Azure Damselfish

Chrysiptera parasema, Yellowtail Damselfish

Chrysiptera rex, King Demoiselle

Chrysiptera rolandi, Roland’s Damselfish

Chrysiptera springeri, Springer’s Damsel

Chrysiptera talboti, Talbot’s Damselfish

Chrysiptera taupou, Fiji Blue Devil

Dascyllus albisella, Whitespot Damselfish, Hawaiian Dascyllus

Dascyllus aruanus, Three Stripe Damselfish

Dascyllus auripinnis, Golden Domino Damselfish

Dascyllus trimaculatus, Three Spot Domino Damselfish

Dischistodus perspicillatus, White Damselfish

Hypsypops rubicundus, Garibaldi Damselfish

Microspathodon chrysurus, Jewel Damselfish

Neoglyphidodon crossi, Cross’s Damselfish

Neoglyphidodon melas, Bowtie Damselfish

Neoglyphidodon nigroris, Black and Gold Chromis

Neopomacentrus azysron, Yellow Lyretail Damselfish

Neopomacentrus bankieri, Lyretail Damselfish

Neopomacentrus cyanomos, Regal Damselfish

Neopomacentrus filamentosus, Brown Damselfish

Neopomacentrus nemurus, Yellow-Tipped Damselfish

Neopomacentrus violascens, Violet Demoiselle

Pomacentrus alleni, Allen’s Damselfish

Pomacentrus amboinensis, Ambon Damselfish

Pomacentrus caeruleus, Caerulean Damselfish

Pomacentrus coelestis, Neon Damselfish

Pomacentrus nagasakiensis, Nagasaki Damselfish

Pomacentrus moluccensis, Lemon Damselfish

Pomacentrus pavo, Sapphire Damselfish

Pomacentrus smithi, Pink Smith Damselfish

Dartfishes (Ptereleotridae) 

Nemateleotris decora, Purple Firefish

Parioglossus cf. dotui, Dotui Dartfish

Dottybacks (Pseudochromidae) 

Congrogadus subducens, Wolf Blenny

Cypho purpurascens, Oblique Lined Dottyback

Labracinus cyclophthalmus, Red Dottyback

Labracinus lineatus, Lined Dottyback

Manonichthys alleni, Allen’s Dottyback

Manonichthys polynemus, Longfin Dottyback

Manonichthys splendens, Splendid Dottyback

Ogilbyina novaehollandiae, Australian Pseudochromis

Oxycercichthys veliferus, Sailfin Dottyback

Pictichromis diadema, Diadem Dottyback

Pictichromis paccagnellae, Bicolor or Royal Dottyback

Pictichromis porphyrea, Magenta Dottyback

Pseudochromis aldabraensis, Neon Dottyback

Pseudochromis bitaeniatus, Double Striped Dottyback

Pseudochromis coccinicauda, Yellow-Breasted Dottyback

Pseudochromis cyanotaenia, Blue Bar Dottyback

Pseudochromis dilectus, Dilectus Dottyback

Pseudochromis elongatus, Red Head Elegant Dottyback

Pseudochromis flavivertex, Sunrise Dottyback

Pseudochromis fridmani, Orchid Dottyback

Pseudochromis fuscus, Dusky or Yellow Dottyback

Pseudochromis leucorhynchus, White-nosed Dottyback

Pseudochromis olivaceus, Olive Dottyback

Pseudochromis sankeyi, Sankey’s or Striped Dottyback

Pseudochromis springeri, Springer’s Dottyback

Pseudochromis steenei, Flamehead or Steen’s Dottyback

Pseudochromis tapeinosoma, Blackmargin Dottyback

Pseudochromis tonozukai, Tono’s or Orange Peel Dottyback

Pseudoplesiops typus, Ring Eyed Dottyback

Pseudoplesiops wassi, Fleck Fin Dottyback

Dragonets (Callionymidae) 

Callionymus bairdi, Lancer Dragonet

Callionymus enneactis, Mosaic Dragonet

Synchiropus circularis, Circled Dragonet

Synchiropus ocellatus, Scooter Blenny

Synchiropus picturatus, Spotted Mandarin

Synchiropus splendidus, Green Mandarin

Synchiropus stellatus, Red Scooter Blenny

Synchiropus sycorax, Ruby Red Dragonet

Drums (Sciaenidae) 

Equetus lanceolatus, Jackknife Fish

Equetus punctatus, Spotted Drum

Pareques acuminatus, High Hat

Pareques umbrosus, Cubbyu

Filefishes (Monacanthidae) 

Acreichthys tomentosus, Bristletail Filefish

Acreichthys radiata, Radiated Filefish

Oxymonacanthus longirostris, Orange Spotted Filefish

Rudarius ercodes, Whitespotted Pygmy Filefish

Stephanolepis hispidus, Planehead Filefish

Flagtails (Kuhliidae)

Kuhlia mugil, Barred Flagtail

Frogfishes (Antennariidae) 

Rhycherus filamentosus, Tasseled Frogfish

Frogfishes, Starfingered (Histiophrynidae)

Lophiocharon lithinostomus, Marble-mouthed Frogfish

Fusiliers (Caesionidae)

Caesio cuning, Red Belly Yellow Tail Fusilier

Caesio teres, Yellow and Blueback Fusilier

Gobies (Gobiidae) 

Amblygobius buanensis, Buan Nano Sand Goby

Amblygobius esakiae, Snoutspot Goby

Amblygobius calvatus, Speartail Goby

Amblygobius linki, Link’s Goby

Amblygobius phalaena, Banded Sleeper Goby

Asterropteryx semipunctata, Starry Goby

Bathygobius andrei, Estuarine Frillfin

Coryphopterus lipernes, Peppermint Goby

Coryphopterus personatus, Masked Goby

Cryptocentroides gobiodes, Crested Oyster Goby

Cryptocentrus cinctus, Yellow Watchman Goby

Cryptocentrus cyanotaenia, Lagoon Shrimpgoby

Cryptocentrus fasciatus, Y-Bar Watchman Goby

Cryptocentrus leptocephalus, Pink-Speckled Shrimp Goby

Cryptocentrus lutheri, Luther’s Prawn-Goby

Elacatinus chancei, Shortstripe Goby

Elacatinus colini, Belize Spongegoby

Elacatinus evelynae, Golden Neon or Sharknose Goby

Elacatinus figaro, Barber Goby

Elacatinus genie, Cleaning Goby

Elacatinus horsti, Yellowline Goby

Elacatinus illecebrosus, Barsnout Goby

Elacatinus louisae, Spotlight Goby

Elacatinus lori, Linesnout Goby

Elacatinus oceanops, Neon Goby

Elacatinus prochilos, Broadstripe Goby

Elacatinus puncticulatus, Red Headed Goby

Elacatinus randalli, Yellownose Goby

Elacatinus xanthiprora, Golden Goby

Eviota atriventris, Blackbelly Dwarfgoby

Eviota bifasciata, Twostripe Eviota

Eviota brahmi, Brahm’s Nano Goby

Eviota guttata, Spotted Dwarfgoby

Eviota lachdeberei, Cosmic Goby

Eviota nigriventris, Red Neon Eviota Goby

Eviota prasina, Greenbubble Dwarfgoby

Eviota prasites, Hairfin Dwarfgoby

Eviota punctulata, Finespot Eviota

Eviota queenslandica, Queensland Dwarfgoby

Eviota storthynx, Storthynx Dwarfgoby

Fusigobius pallidus, Transparent Cave Goby or Pale Sandgoby

Gobiodon citrinus, Citron Clown Goby

Gobiodon okinawae, Okinawan Goby

Gobiopsis quinquecincta, Jaguar Goby

Gobiosoma bosc, Naked Goby

Gobiosoma hildebrandi, Hildebrand’s Goby

Istigobius ornatus, Ornate Goby

Koumansetta hectori, Hector’s Goby

Koumansetta rainfordi, Rainford’s Goby

Lotilia klausewitzi, Whitecap or Dancer Shrimp Goby

Lythrypnus dalli, Catalina Goby

Lophogobius cyprinoides, Crested Goby

Mugilogobius cavifrons, Mangrove Goby

Priolepis cincta, Girdled Goby

Signigobius biocellatus, Signal Goby

Stonogobiops nematodes, Black Ray, Yellow Rose, or Hi-fin Red Banded Goby

Stonogobiops yasha, Yasha or White Ray Goby

Tigrigobius macrodon, Tiger Goby

Tigrigobius multifasciatus, Green Banded Goby

Tigrigobius panamensis, Panamanian Green Banded Goby

Trimma annosum, Greybearded Pygmy Goby

Trimma benjamini, Ring-eye Pygmy Goby

Trimma cf. caesiura, Grooved Dwarfgoby

Trimma kitrinum, Citron Pygmy Goby

Trimma macrophthalmus, Large-eye Pygmy Goby

Trimma striatum, Red-lined Pygmy Goby

Grammas (Grammatidae) 

Gramma brasiliensis, Brazilian or Emperor Gramma

Gramma dejongi, Cuban Basslet

Gramma loreto, Royal Gramma

Gramma melacara, Blackcap Basslet

Lipogramma klayi, Bicolor Basslet

Groupers (Serranidae) 

Chromileptes altivelis, Panther or Humpback Grouper

Epinephelus lanceolatus, Giant or Bumblebee Grouper

Epinephelus marginatus, Dusky Grouper

Plectropomus areolatus, Squaretail Grouper

Pectropomus leopardus, Coral Trout

Grunts (Haemulidae) 

Anisotremus virginicus, Porkfish

Haemulon chrysargyreum, Smallmouth Grunt

Haemulon flavolineatum, French Grunt

Haemulon melanurum, Cottonwick Grunt

Parapristipoma trilineatum, Chicken Grunt

Plectorhinchus vittatus, Indian Ocean Oriental Sweetlips

Hamlets (Serranidae) 

Hypoplectrus gemma, Blue Hamlet

Hypoplectrus guttavarius, Shy Hamlet

Hypoplectrus nigricans, Black Hamlet

Hypoplectrus unicolor, Butter Hamlet

Jacks (Carangidae) 

Coryphaena hippurus, Mahi Mahi

Gnathanodon speciosus, Golden Trevally, Pilot Fish

Selene vomer, Lookdown

Trachinotus carolinus, Pompano

Trachinotus goodie, Palometa

Jawfishes (Opistognathidae) 

Opistognathus aurifrons, Pearly Jawfish

Opistognathus macrognathus, Banded Jawfish

Opistognathus punctatus, Finespotted Jawfish

Labrasomid Blennies (Labrisomidae)

Paraclinus grandicomis, Horned Blenny

Moonyfishes (Monodactylidae)

Monodactylus argenteus, Silver Mono

Monodactylus sebae, Mono Sebae

Pipefishes (Syngnathidae) 

Corythoichthys amplexus, Brown-banded Pipefish

Corythoichthys intestinalis, Scribbled Pipefish

Doryrhamphus excisus, Bluestripe Pipefish

Doryrhamphus janssi, Janss’s Pipefish

Dunckerocampus baldwini, Flame Pipefish, Red Striped Pipefish

Dunckerocampus chapmani, Glow-tail Pipefish

Dunckerocampus dactyliophorus, Ringed Pipefish

Dunckerocampus naia, Naia Pipefish

Dunckerocampus pessuliferus, Yellow Banded Pipefish

Haliichthys taeniophorus, Ribboned Pipefish

Solenostomus paradoxus, Ornate Ghost Pipefish

Syngnathoides biaculeatus, Alligator pipefish

Syngnathus acus, Greater pipefish

Syngnathus floridae, Dusky Pipefish

Syngnathus fuscus, Northern Pipefish

Syngnathus leptorhynchus, Bay Pipefish

Syngnathus scovelli, Gulf Pipefish

Syngnathus typhle, Broadnosed Pipefish

Porcupinefishes (Diodontidae)

Diodon holocanthus, Longspined Porcupinefish

Puffers (Tetraodontidae) 

Arthoron nigropunctatus, Dog-faced Pufferfish

Chilomycterus schoepfi, Striped Burrfish

Canthigaster rostrata, Sharpnose Puffer

Lagocephalus spadiceus, Half-Smooth Golden Puffer

Sphoeroides annulatus, Bullseye Pufferfish

Sphoeroides maculatus, Northern Puffer

Rabbitfishes (Siganidae) 

Siganus canaliculatus, White-Spotted Spinefoot

Siganus fuscescens, Mottled Spinefoot

Siganus guttatus, Oranged-Spotted Rabbitfish

Siganus lineatus, Golden-Lined Spinefoot

Siganus rivulatus, Marbled Spinefoot

Siganus vermiculatus, Vermiculated Rabbitfish

Siganus virgatus, Two-Barred Rabbitfish

Remoras (Echeneidae)

Echeneis naucrates, Live Sharksucker

Roundheads & Bettas (Plesiopidae) 

Calloplesiops altivelis, Marine Betta, Comet

Calloplesiops argus, Finespotted Comet

Plesiops corallicola, Bluegill Longfin

Trachinops taeniatus, Eastern Hulafish

Seadragons (Syngnathidae) 

Solegnathus spinosissimus, Spiny Seadragon

Phyllopteryx taeniolatus, Common or Weedy Seadragon

Seahorses (Syngnathidae) 

Hippocampus abdominalis, Bigbelly Seahorse

Hippocampus algiricus, West African Seahorse

Hippocampus angustus, Western Spiny Seahorse

Hippocampus barbouri, Barbour’s Seahorse

Hippocampus bargibanti, Bargibant’s Seahorse

Hippocampus breviceps, Short-Head Seahorse

Hippocampus capensis, Knysna Seahorse

Hippocampus comes, Tiger Tail Seahorse

Hippocampus coronatus, Crowned Seahorse

Hippocampus erectus, Lined Seahorse

Hippocampus fisheri, Fisher’s Seahorse

Hippocampus fuscus, Sea Pony

Hippocampus guttulatus, Long-Snouted Seahorse

Hippocampus hippocampus, Short-Snouted Seahorse

Hippocampus histrix, Thorny Seahorse

Hippocampus ingens, Pacific Seahorse

Hippocampus kelloggi, Great Seahorse

Hippocampus kuda, Yellow or Common Seahorse (Hippocampus taeniopterus, currently considered a synonym of H. kuda, has also been reared)

Hippocampus patagonicus, Patagonian Seahorse

Hippocampus procerus, High-Crown Seahorse

Hippocampus reidi, Brazilian or Longsnout Seahorse

Hippocampus semispinosus, Half-Spined Seahorse

Hippocampus spinosissimus, Hedgehog Seahorse

Hippocampus subelongatus, Tiger Snout Seahorse

Hippocampus tuberculatus, Knobby Seahorse

Hippocampus trimaculatus, Longnose Seahorse

Hippocampus whitei, White’s Seahorse

Hippocampus zosterae, Dwarf Seahorse

Sharks, Bamboo (Hemiscylliidae) 

Chiloscyllium hasseltii, Hasselt’s Bamboo Shark

Chiloscyllium plagiosum, Whitespotted Bamboo Shark

Chiloscyllium punctatum, Brownbanded Bamboo Shark

Hemiscyllium hallistromi, Papuan Epaulette Shark

Hemiscyllium ocellatum, Epaulette Shark

Hemiscyllium trispeculare, Speckled Carpet Shark

Sharks, Bullhead (Heterodontidae) 

Heterodontus francisci, Horn Shark

Sharks, Cat (Scyliorhinidae)

Atelomycterus marmoratus, Coral Catshark

Sharks, Nurse (Ginglymostomatidae)

Pseudoginglymostoma brevicaudatum, Short-tail Nurse Shark

Shrimpfishes (Centriscidae) 

Aeoliscus strigatus, Razorfish, Shrimpfish

Snappers (Lutjanidae) 

Lutjanus bohar, Two-spot Red Snapper

Lutjanus sebae, Red Emperor Snapper

Lutjanus synagris, Candy or Lane Snapper

Ocyurus chrysurus, Yellowtail Snapper

Stonefishes (Synanceiidae)

Synanceia verrucosa, Stonefish

Stripeys (Microcanthinae)

Microcanthus joyceae, East Australian Stripey

Microcanthus strigatus, Stripey

Sweepers (Pempheridae)

Parapriacanthus ransonneti, Golden Sweeper

Pempheris schomburgkii, Glassy Sweeper

Rays, Whiptail (Dasyatidae) 

Taeniura lymma, Bluespot Stingray

Tangs & Surgeonfishes (Acanthuridae)

Acanthurus mata, Elongate Surgeonfish

Naso vlamingii, Bignose Unicornfish or Valmingi Tang

Paracanthurus hepatus, Pacific Blue Tang

Zebrasoma flavescens, Yellow Tang

Zebrasoma xanthurum, Purple Tang

Threadfin Breams (Nemipteridae)

Pentapodus emeryii, Banana Fish or Double Whiptail

Toadfishes (Batrachoididae) 

Allenbatrachus grunniens, Grunting Toadfish

Opsanus tau, Oyster Toadfish

Triggerfishes (Balistidae) 

Balistes vetula, Queen Triggerfish

Balistoides conspicillum, Clown Triggerfish

Xanthichthys mento, Crosshatch Triggerfish

Triplefins (Tripterygiidae)

Enneapterygius etheostomus, Snake Blenny

Wrasses (Labridae) 

Bodianus axillaris, Axilspot Hogfish

Bodianus bimaculatus, Candy Hogfish

Bodianus pulchellus, Cuban Hogfish

Bodianus sanguineus, Sunrise Hogfish

Cheilinus undulates, Humphead Wrasse

Choerodon fasciatus, Harlequin Tusk

Coris gaimard, Red Coris Wrasse

Halichoeres melanurus, Melanurus or Hoeven’s Wrasse

Halichoeres ornatissimus, Ornate, Ornamented, or Hawaiian Christmas Wrasse

Labroides dimidiatus, Cleaner Wrasse

Labroides phthirophagus, Hawaiian Cleaner Wrasse

Lachnolaimus maximus, Hogfish

Parajulis poecilepterus, Rainbow Wrasse

Free CORAL Newsletter

Join our email list to get the latest on new species, aquatic news and brilliant images chosen by our editors.

Thank you! You have successfully subscribed to the CORAL Magazine e-newsletter.