Please see the updated captive-bred marine fish species list for 2023!

The CORAL Magazine & Marine Breeding Initiative recap of captive-breeding breakthroughs has been published in the September/October 2019 issue of CORAL Magazine.

The CORAL Magazine & Marine Breeding Initiative recap of captive-breeding breakthroughs has been published in the September/October 2019 issue of CORAL Magazine.

CORAL SPECIAL REPORT: The State of the Marine Breeder’s Art, 2019

by Tal Sweet and Matt Pedersen

CORAL Magazine’s Annual Listing of captive-bred marine aquarium fish species, current through early August, 2019

Excerpt from the September/October 2019 issue of CORAL Magazine – subscribe today!

For watchers of the Marine Breeding Scoreboard, the latest update appears to be a quantum leap forward for saltwater aquarium aquaculture. Timed to coincide with MACNA’s potentially historic 2019 Conference dedicated to “Celebrating Aquaculture,” the newest list adds an astounding 39 species, some that bring highly prized and potentially very popular fishes into the captive-bred realm.

An Aquacultured Future

Leading into MACNA, CORAL Magazine also conducted a landmark survey of the aquarium hobby and trade, measuring current sentiment about wild vs. captive-bred livestock and providing a platform for hundreds of participants to express their views on marine breeding and its role in the future marine aquarium trade. Representing the responses of more than 30,000 CORAL Magazine and Newsletter subscribers, the full results of the survey are posted online (see References). Several topline numbers are worthy of note:

  • Only 56% believe they will be able to source both aquacultured and wild livestock in the future; many think that access to wild-harvested fishes and corals will dwindle or disappear.
  • 71% had purchased a captive-bred fish in the past year compared to 69% who had purchased a wild-caught fish.
  • 84% of respondents already prefer to buy or acquire aquacultured livestock when it is available; 74% had purchased captive-propagated corals in the past 12 months.
  • 98% believe that buying sustainably harvested or cultured livestock will be important for the future of the marine aquarium hobby and trade.
    (All in this list are under 5.2% error at 95% confidence interval.)

The free-form responses of wholesalers and retailers make it clear that more variety of captive-cultured species is needed and desired, and that aquaculture must be expanded, particularly in response to the ongoing closure of coral exports from Fiji and Indonesia, and Hawaii’s near shuttering of the marine aquarium trade. The overwhelming sentiment is that aquaculture represents the future of the marine aquarium industry.

Among many other accomplishments, Biota introduced a surprise success, captive-bred Spotbreast or Swallowtail Angelfish, Genicanthus melanospilus. Image Credit: Jake Philipps/Biota Aquariums

Among many other accomplishments, Biota introduced a surprise success, captive-bred Spotbreast or Swallowtail Angelfish, Genicanthus melanospilus. Image Credit: Jake Philipps/Biota Aquariums

The Industry Gives Us Angels, Gobies, and Damsels

While all aquaculture companies are busy, if not scrambling, three dominate the list this year: Biota Marine Life Nursery (Palau), Bali Aquarich (Indonesia), and Oceans, Reefs and Aquariums (ORA, Florida, USA). These three companies are responsible for roughly half of the breakthroughs since our prior list.

Bali Aquarich stands out this year; nine of our new species are angelfishes, and Bali is responsible for five of them. Eight new gobies landed on our captive-bred list this year, representing a mixture of strong efforts at Biota Aquarium but also the uncovering of individual accomplishments and historical data. ORA made headway, looking for the perfect damselfishes to bring to the aquarium trade as captive-bred, revisiting species that had been previously cultured, while adding three new damselfish species to our list. They also claimed a species first with the attractive Two-Barred Rabbitfish.

The world’s first captive-bred Purple Tang Zebrasoma xanthurum), was produced by Bali Aquarich, entered the aquarium trade through Quality Marine, and was retailed through the LiveAquaria® Diver’s Den® WYSIWYG Store. Image credit: Quality Marine

The world’s first captive-bred Purple Tang (Zebrasoma xanthurum) was produced by Bali Aquarich, entered the
aquarium trade through Quality Marine, and was retailed through the LiveAquaria® Diver’s Den® WYSIWYG Store. Image credit: Quality Marine

Tangs, Tangs, Tangs

The first captive-bred surgeonfish hit our list in 2016; today’s routine commercial availability of captive-bred Yellow Tangs (Zebrasoma flavescens), due to ongoing cooperative efforts between the Oceanic Institute of Hawaii Pacific University (OI) and Biota, is a testament to progress and to an industry determined to do more than just say that we should be breeding more fish. Chad Callan (OI) and Tom Bowling (Biota) are excited to share that their efforts have now produced an F2 generation of captive-bred Yellow Tangs: captive-bred babies from captive-bred parents, which close the life cycle completely. Biota is surging forward, announcing that veteran breeder Todd Gardner has joined the team and a new aquaculture lab is being established in North Carolina!

The number of marine fish breeding programs that have produced captive-bred tangs is growing. Bali Aquarich stunned the world by producing the first captive-bred Purple Tang (Zebrasoma xanthurum) in 2019, a new entry to the list.

This summer we became acquainted with another talented ornamental marine fish breeder who flew under the radar until recently. Pei-Sheng Chiu is currently an assistant researcher at the Mariculture Research Center, Fisheries Research Institute, Taiwan, where his work focuses on the aquaculture, breeding, and propagation of marine food finfish: groupers, sea bream, and Mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus). However, in 2017 Chiu worked as a research assistant at the National Museum of Marine Biology & Aquariums in Taiwan. He shocked us just days before publication with his unpublished documentation of two successful breeding efforts that produced two new species of captive-bred tangs in 2017.

Beyond this, Chiu has succeeded with two genera of surgeonfish that had never been propagated in captivity: Acanthurus mata and Naso vlamingii. The successes were unexpected, says Chiu: “We collected the unknown fertilized eggs from the public aquarium and reared them in a 20,000L [5,283-gal.] concrete tank.” Chiu reports utilizing an “inorganic fertilizer” technique to create the larval rearing environment for these species, referencing the article “Towards sustainable exhibits—application of an inorganic fertilization method in coral reef fish larviculture in an aquarium,” by Tew et. al., 2015.

The early life stages of the first captive-bred Vlaming’s Tang, Naso vlamingii. (A) fertilized eggs; (B) 15 days post hatching (DPH); (C) 35 DPH; (D) 40 DPH (E) 64 DPH; (F) 65 DPH; (G) 70 DPH; (H) 100 DPH. Image credit: Pei Sheng Chiu

The early life stages of the first captive-bred Vlaming’s Tang, Naso vlamingii. (A) fertilized eggs; (B) 15 days post-hatching (DPH); (C) 35 DPH; (D) 40 DPH (E) 64 DPH; (F) 65 DPH; (G) 70 DPH; (H) 100 DPH. Image credit: Pei Sheng Chiu

Noteworthy Accomplishments

All breeding projects must start with broodstock; here, the rare, deepwater Neon or Sunrise Hogfish, bodianus sanguineus. Image credit: Karen Brittian

All breeding projects must start with broodstock; here, the rare deepwater Neon or Sunrise Hogfish (Bodianus sanguineus). Image credit: Karen Brittain

Karen Brittain continues to quietly break new ground in her Hawaii-based fishroom; the aquarium world will be graced by a captive-bred handful of the rarely-encountered and very expensive deepwater Sunrise Hogfish (Bodianus sanguineus). Brittain reports that her broodstock pair was collected by the dive team at Hawaiian Reefer and was spawning within two months. This species has now been successfully reared twice under her meticulous care.

Karen Brittian has now successfully spawned and reared multiple Sunrise Hogfish in her lab. Image credit: Leighton Lum.

Karen Brittain has now successfully spawned and reared multiple Sunrise Hogfish in her lab. Image credit: Leighton Lum.

Brittain notes that the species has an exceptionally long larval duration, well over 100 days; at 114 days, she notes that both juveniles and pre-settlement offspring are still present in her current batch. The juveniles are said to be extremely hardy, active, and intelligent—they rapidly learned who was feeding them!

So new it hasn’t even been described, but Poma Labs has already successfully bred Chaetodontoplus sp. “Black Phantom”. Image credit: Dr. Matthew L. Wittenrich/Poma Labs

It’s so new it hasn’t even been described, but Poma Labs has already successfully bred Chaetodontoplus sp. “Black Phantom.” Image credit: Dr. Matthew L. Wittenrich/Poma Labs

Dr. Matthew L. Wittenrich’s Poma Labs in Vero Beach, Florida, another boutique breeder of high-end marine fishes, introduced a captive-bred option for the as-yet-undescribed Black Phantom Angelfish (Chaetodontoplus sp.). Poma Labs also produced the man-made hybrid of the Blue Line and Conspicuous Angelfish, Chaetodontoplus (septentrionalis X conspicillatus). Within the offspring of this mating, the world’s first-ever longfin saltwater angelfish was discovered.

Singular in every regard, this long-finned hybrid of Chaetodontoplus (septentrionalis X conspiculatus) was discovered in Poma Labs breeding. Image credit: Dr. Matthew L. Wittenrich/Poma Labs

Singular in every regard, this long-finned hybrid of Chaetodontoplus (septentrionalis X conspiculatus) was discovered in Poma Labs breeding. Image credit: Dr. Matthew L. Wittenrich/Poma Labs

A well-grown captive-bred Cream Angelfish (Apolemichthys xanthurus) produced by Sustainable Aquatics. Image credit: Matt Pedersen

A well-grown captive-bred Cream Angelfish (Apolemichthys xanthurus) produced by
Sustainable Aquatics. Image credit: Matt Pedersen

In another angelfish milestone, Tennessee-based Sustainable Aquatics tackled the production of three species of angelfish in 2018, one of which resulted in a species first with a captive-bred Cream Angelfish (Apolemichthys xanthurus).

Marine Monos

At the urging of Jonathan Foster, we’ve decided to include monos on our species list. While the aquarium trade often considers them to be freshwater or brackish-water aquarium species, the reality is that adults are pelagic-spawning marine fish, and the larvae can only be reared in saltwater. While juveniles can inhabit environments of reduced salinity, they do not require it; the reality is that Monos are ornamental marine fish, and they provide an active, flashy, silvery display when kept in shoals. University of Florida’s Tropical Aquaculture Lab was responsible for the first captive production of the Sebae Mono (Monodactylus sebae) in 2007. Foster was part of that research and in 2015, his company FishEye Aquaculture (Florida) successfully commercialized the species for the aquarium trade. It’s unclear who first pioneered the breeding of the more widespread Silver Mono (Monodactylus argenteus), but FishEye routinely produces this species as well.

For the Experts

Foster has leveraged his existing skill set with breeding grunts to claim a species first this year with the beautiful and mostly monochromatic Cottonwick Grunt (Haemulon melanurum), a fish destined to be snapped up by public aquariums looking to source captive-bred species for use in creating large schools in big display tanks.

Keeping with the theme of marine ornamentals that might be more welcomed by the public aquarium world, scientists at Roger Williams University (Rhode Island) and the New England Aquarium (Massachusetts) also cracked the code on an entirely new family of fish, producing the nocturnal, aggregation-forming Glassy Sweeper (Pempheris schomburgkii) in their labs. New England Aquarium aquarists also produced the world’s first captive-bred Black Brotula (Stygnobrotula latebricola) and Brown Chromis (Chromis multilineata) at their Quincy Animal Care Facility.

Researchers Dr. Cortney Ohs, Benjamin Lovewell, Paul Schlict, and Fred Shopnitz, working at University of Florida’s Indian River Research and Education Center with Rising Tide Conservation, added a beautiful and functional butterflyfish to the list: the Banded Butterflyfish (Chaetodon striatus), which happens to be a fairly good destroyer of Aiptasia in a reef aquarium, and which will leave your coveted SPS alone (a classic “reef-safe with caution” warning applies here!).

Lamark's Angelfish, Genicanthus lamark, is finally added to the captive-bred species list. Image credit: Tim Morrissey & Andrew Hinrich/Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo and Aquarium

Lamarck’s Angelfish, Genicanthus lamarck, is finally added to the captive-bred species list. Image credit: Tim Morrissey & Andrew Hinrich/Omaha’s Henry Doorly Zoo and Aquarium

We’re not sure how we overlooked the breeding of Lamarck’s Angelfish (Genicanthus lamarck); Noel Heinsohn, now the Hatchery Manager for Fundación Grupo Puntacana (Dominican Republic), successfully reared this species in 2017 while serving as the Aquaculture Aquarist at the Long Island Aquarium (New York). The captive breeding of the Lamarck’s Angelfish was repeated just months later by Tim Morrissey, Andrew Hinrichs, and colleagues at Omaha’s Henry Doorly Zoo and Aquarium (Nebraska) in 2017, and then again in 2018.

It may seem that little headway has been made by amateur breeders; professional breeders, large-scale operations, and research programs are responsible for nearly all the additions to the list this year. But that’s not to say there isn’t room out there for the home hobbyist or casual breeder to claim a species first of their own. Just as August started, German aquarist Herbert Nigl, proprietor of the wholesale operation Aquarium Dietzenbach, shared definitive success breeding the Hi-Fin Red Banded Goby (Stonogobiops nematodes). We are excited to share the success of students and faculty at Southampton High School on Long Island, New York, who tackled the challenge of breeding the rarely encountered Lagoon Shrimp Goby (Cryptocentrus cyanotaenia), a story we plan on sharing in more detail in the near future.

In summary:

Bali Aquarich

  • Blacktail Angelfish (Centropyge eibli)
  • Personifer Angelfish (Chaetodontoplus personifer)
  • Rock Beauty Angelfish (Holacanthus tricolor)
  • Cortez Angelfish (Pomacanthus zonipectus)
  • Regal Angelfish (Pygoplites diacanthus)
  • Purple Tang (Zebrasoma xanthurum)

ORA (Oceans Reefs and Aquariums)

  • Springer’s Damsel (Chrysiptera springeri)
  • Black Comb-tooth Blenny (Ecsenius namiyei)
  • Allen’s Damselfish (Pomacentrus alleni)
  • Lemon Damselfish (Pomacentrus moluccensis
  • Two-Barred Rabbitfish (Siganus virgatus)

Biota Marine Life Nursery

  • Starry Goby (Asterropteryx semipunctata)
  • Swallowtail Angelfish (Genicanthus melanospilos)
  • Squarespot Anthias (Pseudanthias pleurotaenia)
  • Ring-eye Pygmy Goby (Trimma benjamini)
  • Red-lined Pygmy Goby (Trimma striatum)

Pei-Sheng Chiu and colleagues

  • Elongate Surgeonfish (Acanthurus mata)
  • Ornate Goby (Istigobius ornatus)
  • Mangrove Goby (Mugilogobius cavifrons)
  • Bignose Unicornfish or Valmingi Tang (Naso vlamingii)

New England Aquarium

  • Brown Chromis (Chromis multilineata)
  • Black Brotula (Stygnobrotula latebricola)

New England Aquarium & Roger Williams University

  • Glassy Sweeper (Pempheris schomburgkii)

Sustainable Aquatics:

  • Cream Angelfish (Apolemichthys xanthurus)

FishEye Aquaculture:

  • Cottonwick Grunt (Haemulon melanurum)

Poma Labs:

  • Black Phantom Angelfish (Chaetodontoplus sp. ‘Blank Phantom’)

Herbert Nigl

  • Hi-fin Red Banded Goby (Stonogobiops nematodes)

Karen Brittain

  • Sunrise Hogfish (Bodianus sanguineus)

University of Florida/Rising Tide Conservation

  • Banded Butterflyfish (Chaetodon striatus)

Long Island Aquarium

  • Lamark’s Angelfish (Genicanthus lamark)

Southampton High School

  • Lagoon Shrimpgoby (Cryptocentrus cyanotaenia)

Unattributed, overlooked, or historical accomplishments:

  • Mono Sebae (Monodactylus sebae)
  • Silver Mono (Monodactylus argenteus)
  • Half-Spine Seahorse (Hippocampus semispinosus)
  • Estuarine Frillfin (Bathygobius andrei)
  • Live Sharksucker (Echeneis naucrates)
  • Speckled Carpet Shark (Hemiscyllium trispeculare)
  • Longfin Batfish (Platax teira)
  • Short-tail Nurse Shark (Pseudoginglymostoma brevicaudatum)

The new 2019 Captive Bred Marine Fish Species List now supersedes the 2018 list, the 2017 listthe 2016 listthe 2015 list, the 2014 list, and the 2013 list. Color-coded perceived availability in the United States from February 2018 through early August 2019 has been included this year:

Orange Common Name = New to the list this year
Pink Common Name = New to the list this year, but as a formerly overlooked accomplishment
Green = Commonly Available. Easy to find as a captive-bred fish, often from more than one source, throughout 2018 and the first half of 2019.
Blue – Moderate to Low. Might have taken some searching, and availability may have been limited, potentially only with one source, but was reasonably obtainable as a captive-bred fish in 2018/2019.
Purple = Scarce. Generally only one source or breeder is known, and potentially only a handful of specimens may have been available. You may have “had to know someone” or even know the breeder directly in order to obtain them as captive-bred fish during 2018/2019.
Black = None. The authors and consulted parties were unaware of any retail availability of this species from a captive-bred source during 2018/2019.

Angelfishes (Pomacanthidae)

Apolemichthys arcuatus, Bandit Angelfish

Apolemichthys trimaculatus, Flagfin Angelfish

Apolemichthys xanthopunctatus, Goldflake Angelfish

Apolemichthys xanthurus, Cream Angelfish

Centropyge acanthops, African Pygmy Angelfish

Centropyge argi, Cherub Angelfish

Centropyge bicolor, Bicolor Angelfish

Centropyge bispinosa, Coral Beauty Angelfish

Centropyge colini,  Collins or Cocos Keeling Angelfish

Centropyge debelius, Debelius Angelfish

Centropyge eibli, Blacktail Angelfish

Centropyge fisheri, Fisher’s Angelfish

Centropyge flavissima, Lemonpeel Angelfish

Centropyge interruptus, Japanese Pygmy Angel

Centropyge joculator, Joculator Angelfish

Centropyge loricula, Flame Angelfish

Centropyge multicolor, Multicolor Angelfish

Centropyge potteri, Potter’s Angelfish

Centropyge resplendens, Resplendent Angelfish

Chaetodontoplus caeruleopunctatus, Bluespotted Angelfish

Chaetodontoplus cephalareticulatus, Maze Angelfish

Chaetodontoplus conspicillatus, Conspicuous Angelfish

Chaetodonotplus duboulayi, Scribbled Angelfish

Chaetodonotplus melasoma, Grey Poma or Black Velvet Angelfish

Chaetodonotplus meridethi, False Personifer Angelfish

Chaetodontoplus mesoleucus, Singapore Angelfish

Chaetodontoplus personifer, Personifer Angelfish

Chaetodontoplus septentrionalis, Bluestriped Angelfish

Chaetodontoplus sp., Black Phantom Angelfish

Genicanthus bellus, Ornate Angelfish

Genicanthus lamark, Lamark’s Angelfish

Genicanthus melanospilos, Swallowtail Angelfish

Genicanthus personatus, Masked Angelfish

Genicanthus watenabei, Blackedged Angelfish

Holacanthus clarionensis, Clarion Angelfish

Holacanthus passer, Passer or King Angelfish

Holacanthus tricolor, Rock Beauty Angelfish

Paracentropyge multifasciata, Multibar Angelfish

Paracentropyge venusta, Purplemask Angelfish

Pomacanthus annularis, Annularis Angelfish

Pomacanthus arcuatus, Gray Angelfish

Pomacanthus asfur, Asfur Angelfish

Pomacanthus maculosus, Yellowbar Angelfish

Pomacanthus navarchus, Majestic or Blue Girdled Angelfish

Pomacanthus paru, French Angelfish

Pomacanthus semicirculatus, Semicircle Angelfish

Pomacanthus sexstriatus, Sixbar Angelfish

Pomacanthus zonipectus, Cortez Angelfish

Pygoplites diacanthus, Regal Angelfish

Anthias (Serranidae)

Odotanthias borbonius, Borbonius Anthias

Odontanthias fuscipinnis, Hawaiian Yellow Anthias

Pseudanthias hypselosoma, Stocky Anthias

Pseudanthias pleurotaenia, Squarespot Anthias

Pseudanthias squamipinnis, Lyretail Anthias

Assessors (Plesiopidae) 

Assessor flavissimus, Yellow Assessor

Assessor macneilli, Blue Assessor

Assessor randalli, Randal’s Assessor

Basslets (Serranidae) 

Liopropoma carmabi, Candy Basslet

Liopropoma rubre, Swissguard Basslet

Rainfordia opercularis, Flathead Perch

Batfishes (Ephippidae) 

Chaetodipterus faber, Atlantic Spadefish

Platax bativianus, Zebra Batfish

Platax orbicularis, Orbiculate Batfish

Platax pinnatus, Pinnatus Batfish

Platax teira, Longfin Batfish

Blennies (Blenniidae) 

Chasmodes bosquianus, Striped Blenny

Ecsenius gravieri, Red Sea Mimic Blenny

Ecsenius bicolor, Bicolor Blenny

Ecsenius namiyei, Black Comb-tooth Blenny

Enchelyurus flavipes, Goldentail Comb-Tooth Blenny

Hypleurochilus multifilis, Featherduster Blenny

Hypsoblennius hentz, Feather Blenny

Meiacanthus atrodorsalis, Forktail Blenny

Meiacanthus bundoon, Bundoon Blenny

Meiacanthus grammistes, Striped Fang Blenny

Meicanthus kamohari, Kamohara Blenny

Meiacanthus mossambicus, Mozambique Fang Blenny

Meiacanthus nigrolineatus, Blackline Fang Blenny

Meiacanthus oualanensis, Canary Fang Blenny

Meiacanthus smithi, Disco Blenny

Meiacanthus tongaensis, Fang Blenny (Tonga)

Parablennius marmoreus, Seaweed Blenny

Petroscirtes breviceps, Mimic Fang Blenny

Salaria pavo, Peacock Blenny

Scartella cristata, Molly Miller Blenny

Boxfishes (Ostraciidae)

Acanthostracion quadricornis, Scrawled Cowfish

Brotulas, viviparous (Bythitidae)

Stygnobrotula latebricola, Black Brotula 

Butterflyfishes (Chaetodontidae)

Chaetodon klienii, Klien’s, Orange or Sunburst Butterflyfish

Chaetodon milliaris, Milletseed or Lemon Butterflyfish

Chaetodon sedentarius, Reef Butterflyfish

Chaetodon striatus, Banded Butterflyfish

Forcipiger flavissimus, Longnose Butterflyfish (note, was erroneously listed as F. longirostris on the 2018 list)

Parachaetodon ocellatus, Kite Butterflyfish

Cardinalfishes (Apogonidae)

Apogon notatus, Spotnape Cardinalfish

Apogonichthyoides melas, Black Cardinalfish

Apogonichthyoides nigripinnis, Bullseye Cardinalfish

Cheilodipterus quinquelineatus, Five-Lined Cardinalfish

Fowleria flammea, Red Stop Light Cardinalfish

Nectamia bandanensis, Bigeye Cardinalfish

Ostorhinchus compressus, Ochre-Striped Cardinalfish

Ostorhinchus cyanosoma, Yellow-Striped Cardinalfish

Ostorhinchus luteus, Yellow Cardinalfish

Ostorhinchus margaritophorus, Copper Lined Cardinalfish

Ostorhinchus quadrifasciatus, Two-Striped Cardinalfish

Pterapogon kauderni, Banggai Cardinalfish

Pterapogon mirifica, Sailfin Cardinalfish

Sphaeramia nematoptera, Pajama Cardinalfish

Sphaeramia orbicularis, Orbic Cardinalfish

Zoramia leptacantha, Threadfin Cardinalfish

Marine Catfishes (Plotosidae)

Plotosus lineatus, Striped Eel Catfish

Clingfishes (Gobiesocidae) 

Gobiesox punctulatus, Stippled Clingfish

Gobiesox strumosus, Skilletfish

Clownfishes (Pomacentridae) 

Amphiprion akallopisos, Skunk Clownfish

Amphiprion akindynos, Barrier Reef Clownfish

Amphiprion allardi, Allard’s Clownfish

Amphiprion barberi, Fiji Barberi Clownfish

Amphiprion bicinctus, Red Sea (Two-Barred) Clownfish

Amphiprion chrysogaster, Mauritian Clownfish

Amphiprion chrysopterus, Orangefin/Bluestripe Anemonefish

Amphiprion clarkii, Clarkii Clownfish

Amphiprion ephippium, Red Saddleback Clownfish

Amphiprion frenatus, Tomato Clownfish

Amphiprion latezonatus, Wide Band Clownfish

Amphiprion latifasciatus, Madagascar Clownfish

Amphiprion leucokranos, Whitebonnet Clownfish

Amphiprion mccullochi, McCulloch’s Clownfish

Amphiprion melanopus, Cinnamon Clownfish

Amphiprion nigripes, Blackfinned Clownfish

Amphiprion ocellaris, Ocellaris Clownfish

Amphiprion percula, Percula Clownfish

Amphiprion perideraion, Pink Skunk Clownfish

Amphiprion polymnus, Saddleback Clownfish

Amphiprion rubrocinctus, Australian Clownfish

Amphiprion sandaracinos, Orange Skunk Clownfish

Amphiprion sebae, Sebae Clownfish

Amphiprion tricinctus, Three-Band Clownfish

Premnas biaculeatus, Maroon Clownfish

Convict Blennies (Pholidichthyidae) 

Pholidichthys leucotaenia, Convict Blenny, Engineer Goby

Damselfishes (Pomacentridae)

Abudefduf saxatilis, Sergeant Major

Acanthochromis polyacanthus, Orange Line Chromis

Amblyglyphidodon aureus, Golden Damselfish

Amphyglyphidodon curacao, Staghorn Damselfish

Amblyglyphidodon leucogaster, Yellow-belly Damselfish

Amblyglyphidodon ternatensis, Ternate Damselfish

Chromis cyaneus, Caribbean Blue Reef Chromis

Chromis multilineata, Brown Chromis

Chromis nitida, Barrier Reef Chromis

Chromis viridis, Blue Green Chromis

Chrysiptera cyanea, Blue Devil Damselfish

Chrysiptera hemicyanea, Azure Damselfish

Chrysiptera parasema, Yellowtail Damselfish

Chrysiptera rex, King Demoiselle

Chrysiptera rolandi, Roland’s Damselfish

Chrysiptera springeri, Springer’s Damsel

Chrysiptera talboti, Talbot’s Damselfish

Chrysiptera taupou, Fiji Blue Devil

Dascyllus albisella, Whitespot Damselfish, Hawaiian Dascyllus

Dascyllus aruanus, Three Stripe Damselfish

Dascyllus trimaculatus, Three Spot Domino Damselfish

Hypsypops rubicundus, Garibaldi Damselfish

Microspathodon chrysurus, Jewel Damselfish

Neoglyphidodon crossi, Cross’s Damselfish

Neoglyphidodon melas, Bowtie Damselfish

Neoglyphidodon nigroris, Black and Gold Chromis

Neopomacentrus bankieri, Lyretail Damselfish

Neopomacentrus cyanomos, Regal Damselfish

Neopomacentrus filamentosus, Brown Damselfish

Neopomacentrus nemurus, Yellow-Tipped Damselfish

Neopomacentrus violascens, Violet Demoiselle

Pomacentrus alleni, Allen’s Damselfish

Pomacentrus amboinensis, Ambon Damselfish

Pomacentrus caeruleus, Caerulean Damselfish

Pomacentrus coelestis, Neon Damselfish

Pomacentrus nagasakiensis, Nagasaki Damselfish

Pomacentrus moluccensis, Lemon Damselfish

Pomacentrus pavo, Sapphire Damselfish

Dartfishes (Ptereleotridae) 

Nemateleotris decora, Purple Firefish

Parioglossus cf. dotui, Dotui Dartfish

Dottybacks (Pseudochromidae) 

Congrogadus subducens, Wolf Blenny

Cypho purpurascens, Oblique Lined Dottyback

Labracinus cyclophthalmus, Red Dottyback

Labracinus lineatus, Lined Dottyback

Manonichthys alleni, Allen’s Dottyback

Manonichthys polynemus, Longfin Dottyback

Manonichthys splendens, Splendid Dottyback

Ogilbyina novaehollandiae, Australian Pseudochromis

Oxycercichthys veliferus, Sailfin Dottyback

Pictichromis diadema, Diadem Dottyback

Pictichromis paccagnellae, Bicolor or Royal Dottyback

Pictichromis porphyrea, Magenta Dottyback

Pseudochromis aldabraensis, Neon Dottyback

Pseudochromis bitaeniatus, Double Striped Dottyback

Pseudochromis coccinicauda, Yellow-Breasted Dottyback

Pseudochromis cyanotaenia, Blue Bar Dottyback

Pseudochromis dilectus, Dilectus Dottyback

Pseudochromis elongatus, Red Head Elegant Dottyback

Pseudochromis flavivertex, Sunrise Dottyback

Pseudochromis fridmani, Orchid Dottyback

Pseudochromis fuscus, Dusky or Yellow Dottyback

Pseudochromis olivaceus, Olive Dottyback

Pseudochromis sankeyi, Sankey’s or Striped Dottyback

Pseudochromis springeri, Springer’s Dottyback

Pseudochromis steenei, Flamehead or Steen’s Dottyback

Pseudochromis tapeinosoma, Blackmargin Dottyback

Pseudochromis tonozukai, Tono’s or Orange Peel Dottyback

Pseudoplesiops wassi, Fleck Fin Dottyback

Dragonets (Callionymidae) 

Callionymus bairdi, Lancer Dragonet

Callionymus enneactis, Mosaic Dragonet

Synchiropus ocellatus, Scooter Blenny

Synchiropus picturatus, Spotted Mandarin

Synchiropus splendidus, Green Mandarin

Synchiropus stellatus, Red Scooter Blenny

Synchiropus sycorax, Ruby Red Dragonet

Drums (Sciaenidae) 

Equetus lanceolatus, Jackknife Fish

Equetus punctatus, Spotted Drum

Pareques acuminatus, High Hat

Pareques umbrosus, Cubbyu

Filefishes (Monacanthidae) 

Acreichthys tomentosus, Bristletail Filefish

Acreichthys radiata, Radiated Filefish

Oxymonacanthus longirostris, Orange Spotted Filefish

Rudarius ercodes, Whitespotted Pygmy Filefish

Stephanolepis hispidus, Planehead Filefish

Flagtails (Kuhliidae)

Kuhlia mugil, Barred Flagtail

Frogfishes (Antennariidae) 

Rhycherus filamentosus, Tasseled Frogfish

Gobies (Gobiidae) 

Amblygobius esakiae, Snoutspot Goby

Amblygobius calvatus, Speartail Goby

Amblygobius linki, Link’s Goby

Amblygobius phalaena, Banded Sleeper Goby

Asterropteryx semipunctata, Starry Goby

Bathygobius andrei, Estuarine Frillfin

Coryphopterus personatus, Masked Goby

Cryptocentroides gobiodes, Crested Oyster Goby

Cryptocentrus cinctus, Yellow Watchman Goby

Cryptocentrus cyanotaenia, Lagoon Shrimpgoby

Cryptocentrus fasciatus, Y-Bar Watchman Goby

Cryptocentrus leptocephalus, Pink-Speckled Shrimp Goby

Cryptocentrus lutheri, Luther’s Prawn-Goby

Elacatinus chancei, Shortstripe Goby

Elacatinus colini, Belize Spongegoby

Elacatinus evelynae, Golden Neon or Sharknose Goby

Elacatinus figaro, Barber Goby

Elacatinus genie, Cleaning Goby

Elacatinus horsti, Yellowline Goby

Elacatinus louisae, Spotlight Goby

Elacatinus lori, Linesnout Goby

Elacatinus oceanops, Neon Goby

Elacatinus prochilos, Broadstripe Goby

Elacatinus puncticulatus, Red Headed Goby

Elacatinus randalli, Yellownose Goby

Elacatinus xanthiprora, Golden Goby

Eviota atriventris, Blackbelly Dwarfgoby

Eviota bifasciata, Twostripe Eviota

Eviota nigriventris, Red Neon Eviota Goby

Eviota punctulata, Finespot Eviota

Fusigobius pallidus, Transparent Cave Goby or Pale Sandgoby

Gobiodon citrinus, Citron Clown Goby

Gobiodon okinawae, Okinawan Goby

Gobiopsis quinquecincta, Jaguar Goby

Gobiosoma bosc, Naked Goby

Istigobius ornatus, Ornate Goby

Koumansetta hectori, Hector’s Goby

Koumansetta rainfordi, Rainford’s Goby

Lythrypnus dalli, Catalina Goby

Mugilogobius cavifrons, Mangrove Goby

Priolepis cincta, Girdled Goby

Signigobius biocellatus, Signal Goby

Stonogobiops nematodes, Black Ray, Yellow Rose, or Hi-fin Red Banded Goby

Stonogobiops yasha, Yasha or White Ray Goby

Tigrigobius macrodon, Tiger Goby

Tigrigobius multifasciatus, Green Banded Goby

Trimma benjamini, Ring-eye Pygmy Goby

Trimma caesiura, Grooved Dwarfgoby

Trimma striatum, Red-lined Pygmy Goby

Grammas (Grammatidae) 

Gramma dejongi, Cuban Basslet

Gramma loreto, Royal Gramma

Gramma melacara, Blackcap Basslet

Lipogramma klayi, Bicolor Basslet

Groupers (Serranidae) 

Chromileptes altivelis, Panther or Humpback Grouper

Epinephelus lanceolatus, Giant or Bumblebee Grouper

Epinephelus marginatus, Dusky Grouper

Plectropomus areolatus, Squaretail Grouper

Pectropomus leopardus, Coral Trout

Serranus subligarius, Belted Sandfish

Grunts (Haemulidae) 

Anisotremus virginicus, Porkfish

Haemulon chrysargyreum, Smallmouth Grunt

Haemulon flavolineatum, French Grunt

Haemulon melanurum, Cottonwick Grunt

Plectorhinchus vittatus, Indian Ocean Oriental Sweetlips

Hamlets (Serranidae) 

Hypoplectrus gemma, Blue Hamlet

Hypoplectrus guttavarius, Shy Hamlet

Hypoplectrus unicolor, Butter Hamlet

Jacks (Carangidae) 

Coryphaena hippurus, Mahi Mahi

Gnathanodon speciosus, Golden Trevally, Pilot Fish

Selene vomer, Lookdown

Trachinotus carolinus, Pompano

Trachinotus goodie, Palometa

Jawfishes (Opistognathidae) 

Opistognathus aurifrons, Pearly Jawfish

Opistognathus macrognathus, Banded Jawfish

Opistognathus punctatus, Finespotted Jawfish

Labrasomid Blennies (Labrisomidae)

Paraclinus grandicomis, Horned Blenny

Moonyfishes (Monodactylidae)

Monodactylus argenteus, Silver Mono

Monodactylus sebae, Mono Sebae

Pipefishes (Syngnathidae) 

Doryrhamphus excisus, Bluestripe Pipefish

Doryrhamphus janssi, Janss’s Pipefish

Dunckerocampus baldwini, Flame Pipefish, Red Striped Pipefish

Dunckerocampus chapmani, Glow-tail Pipefish

Dunckerocampus dactyliophorus, Ringed Pipefish

Dunckerocampus naia, Naia Pipefish

Dunckerocampus pessuliferus, Yellow Banded Pipefish

Haliichthys taeniophorus, Ribboned Pipefish

Syngnathoides biaculeatus, Alligator pipefish

Syngnathus acus, Greater pipefish

Syngnathus floridae, Dusky Pipefish

Syngnathus fuscus, Northern Pipefish

Syngnathus leptorhynchus, Bay Pipefish

Syngnathus scovelli, Gulf Pipefish

Syngnathus typhle, Broadnosed Pipefish

Porcupinefishes (Diodontidae)

Diodon holocanthus, Longspined Porcupinefish

Puffers (Tetraodontidae) 

Arthoron nigropunctatus, Dog-faced Pufferfish

Chilomycterus schoepfi, Striped Burrfish

Canthigaster rostrata, Sharpnose Puffer

Lagocephalus spadiceus, Half-Smooth Golden Puffer

Sphoeroides annulatus, Bullseye Pufferfish

Sphoeroides maculatus, Northern Puffer

Rabbitfishes (Siganidae) 

Siganus canaliculatus, White-Spotted Spinefoot

Siganus fuscescens, Mottled Spinefoot

Siganus guttatus, Oranged-Spotted Rabbitfish

Siganus lineatus, Golden-Lined Spinefoot

Siganus rivulatus, Marbled Spinefoot

Siganus vermiculatus, Vermiculated Rabbitfish

Siganus virgatus, Two-Barred Rabbitfish

Remoras (Echeneidae)

Echeneis naucrates, Live Sharksucker

Roundheads & Bettas (Plesiopidae) 

Calloplesiops altivelis, Marine Betta, Comet

Plesiops corallicola, Bluegill Longfin

Trachinops taeniatus, Eastern Hulafish

Seadragons (Syngnathidae) 

Solegnathus spinosissimus, Spiny Seadragon

Phyllopteryx taeniolatus, Common or Weedy Seadragon

Seahorses (Syngnathidae) 

Hippocampus abdominalis, Bigbelly Seahorse

Hippocampus algiricus, West African Seahorse

Hippocampus angustus, Western Spiny Seahorse

Hippocampus barbouri, Barbour’s Seahorse

Hippocampus bargibanti, Bargibant’s Seahorse

Hippocampus breviceps, Short-Head Seahorse

Hippocampus capensis, Knysna Seahorse

Hippocampus comes, Tiger Tail Seahorse

Hippocampus coronatus, Crowned Seahorse

Hippocampus erectus, Lined Seahorse

Hippocampus fisheri, Fisher’s Seahorse

Hippocampus fuscus, Sea Pony

Hippocampus guttulatus, Long-Snouted Seahorse

Hippocampus hippocampus, Short-Snouted Seahorse

Hippocampus histrix, Thorny Seahorse

Hippocampus ingens, Pacific Seahorse

Hippocampus kelloggi, Great Seahorse

Hippocampus kuda, Yellow or Common Seahorse (Hippocampus taeniopterus, currently considered a synonym of H. kuda, has also been reared)

Hippocampus patagonicus, Patagonian Seahorse

Hippocampus procerus, High-Crown Seahorse

Hippocampus reidi, Brazilian or Longsnout Seahorse

Hippocampus semispinosus, Half-Spined Seahorse

Hippocampus spinosissimus, Hedgehog Seahorse

Hippocampus subelongatus, Tiger Snout Seahorse

Hippocampus tuberculatus, Knobby Seahorse

Hippocampus trimaculatus, Longnose Seahorse

Hippocampus whitei, White’s Seahorse

Hippocampus zosterae, Dwarf Seahorse

Sharks, Bamboo (Hemiscylliidae) 

Chiloscyllium hasseltii, Hasselt’s Bamboo Shark

Chiloscyllium plagiosum, Whitespotted Bamboo Shark

Chiloscyllium punctatum, Brownbanded Bamboo Shark

Hemiscyllium hallistromi, Papuan Epaulette Shark

Hemiscyllium ocellatum, Epaulette Shark

Hemiscyllium trispeculare, Speckled Carpet Shark

Sharks, Bullhead (Heterodontidae) 

Heterodontus francisci, Horn Shark

Sharks, Cat (Scyliorhinidae)

Atelomycterus marmoratus, Coral Catshark

Sharks, Nurse (Ginglymostomatidae)

Pseudoginglymostoma brevicaudatum, Short-tail Nurse Shark

Shrimpfishes (Centriscidae) 

Aeoliscus strigatus, Razorfish, Shrimpfish

Snappers (Lutjanidae) 

Lutjanus sebae, Red Emperor Snapper

Sweepers (Pempheridae)

Pempheris schomburgkii, Glassy Sweeper

Rays, Whiptail (Dasyatidae) 

Taeniura lymma, Bluespot Stingray

Tangs & Surgeonfishes (Acanthuridae)

Acanthurus mata, Elongate Surgeonfish

Naso vlamingii, Bignose Unicornfish or Valmingi Tang

Paracanthurus hepatus, Pacific Blue Tang

Zebrasoma flavescens, Yellow Tang

Zebrasoma xanthurum, Purple Tang

Toadfishes (Batrachoididae) 

Allenbatrachus grunniens, Grunting Toadfish

Opsanus tau, Oyster Toadfish

Triggerfishes (Balistidae) 

Balistes vetula, Queen Triggerfish

Balistoides conspicillum, Clown Triggerfish

Xanthichthys mento, Crosshatch Triggerfish

Triplefins (Tripterygiidae)

Enneapterygius etheostomus, Snake Blenny

Wrasses (Labridae) 

Bodianus pulchellus, Cuban Hogfish

Bodianus sanguineus, Sunrise Hogfish

Cheilinus undulates, Humphead Wrasse

Halichoeres melanurus, Melanurus or Hoeven’s Wrasse

Halichoeres ornatissimus, Ornate, Ornamented, or Hawaiian Christmas Wrasse

Labroides dimidiatus, Cleaner Wrasse

Labroides phthirophagus, Hawaiian Cleaner Wrasse

Lachnolaimus maximus, Hogfish

Parajulis poecilepterus, Rainbow Wrasse

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