Please see the updated captive-bred marine fish species list for 2023!

CORAL Magazine's Annual Report on the state of marine aquarium breeder efforts appears in the latest issue.

CORAL Magazine’s Annual Report on the state of marine aquarium breeder efforts appears in the latest issue.

A CORAL SPECIAL REPORT: The State of the Marine Breeders’ Art 2017

by Tal Sweet

CORAL Magazine’s Annual Listing of captive-bred marine aquarium fish species, current through early October 2016 – an excerpt from the November/December 2016 issue of CORAL Magazine – subscribe today!

As you may have noticed, this issue is filled with stories of captive breeding successes from around the world. It’s often said that nothing good happens quickly in the marine aquarium hobby, but in this case it’s becoming difficult to keep up! Traditionally we publish our annual list of new captive-bred species in the January/February issue, but so much has been going on this year that we decided to break tradition and do it in this issue.

On a recent episode of the Reef Threads podcast, hosts Gary Parr and Christine Williams discussed the impact and growth of captive breeding, and their perspective was enlightening. Less than a decade ago, many fishes were deemed too difficult to keep–much less persuade to spawn and raise offspring–in captivity. In 2008, Matthew Pedersen challenged that perception by becoming the first person to not only house a pair of Orange-Spotted Filefish, Oxymonacanthus longirostris, but have the pair spawn in his care and raise their offspring beyond 60 days post-settlement. Fast-forward to 2016, and we’re seeing a plethora of formerly “difficult” species being housed by hobbyists and institutions with excellent results. These fishes aren’t just surviving—they are thriving and spawning under the proper care.

2016 saw the first commercial release of some 700 Yellow Tangs bred at Hawaii’s Oceanic Institute by a team led by Dr. Chad Callan. Image credit: Chatham Callan, Ph.D.

2016 saw the first commercial release of some 700 Yellow Tangs bred at Hawaii’s Oceanic Institute by a team led by Dr. Chad Callan. Image credit: Chatham Callan, Ph.D.

At the end of 2015, we were all amazed by the announcement of the first captive-bred Yellow Tangs, Zebrasoma flavescens, by Dr. Chatham Callan at the Oceanic Institute in Hawaii. We also pondered the possibility of breeding the Pacific Blue Tang, Paracanthurus hepatus, in captivity. Now that has become a reality. Less than a week before the seventh annual MBI Workshop in July, an announcement was made that Kevin Barden, working at the Tropical Aquaculture Laboratory in Florida, had successfully raised P. hepatus. Barden was quickly added to the list of speakers, and he presented his project to a roomful of eager hobbyist and professional breeders from around North America. This milestone was of particular interest because it happened only a few weeks after the release of the film “Finding Dory,” which featured a Blue Tang as the main character.

Hippo Tangs, Paracanthurus hepatus, were first bred in 2016 from this broodstock at the University of Florida’s Tropical Aquaculture Laboratory under Craig Watson with funding from Rising Tide and Dr. Judy St. Leger. Image Credit: Matthew L. Wittenrich

Hippo Tangs, Paracanthurus hepatus, were first bred in 2016 from this broodstock at the University of Florida’s Tropical Aquaculture Laboratory under Craig Watson, with funding from Rising Tide and Dr. Judy St. Leger. Image Credit: Matthew L. Wittenrich

Since then, new reports have been coming fast and furious. Currently, we can confirm at least 16 to 18 new captive-breeding successes. Several of these will be covered in detail in this issue, with more to come in the following issue.

From the Oceanic Institute, in conjunction with Rising Tide Conservation, we have the Potter’s Angelfish (Centropyge potteri), the Hawaiian Cleaner Wrasse (Labroides phthirophagus), and the Milletseed Butterflyfish (Chaetodon miliaris), raised by Avier Montalvo.

Todd Gardner, 2014 MASNA Aquarist of the Year, has now bred his 53rd species, the Flathead Perch, Rainfordia opercularis, at Suffolk County Community College in Selden, New York.

Rainfordia opercularis, the rarely seen Flathead Perch, was recently captive bred for the first time by Todd Gardner. Image credit: Todd Gardner

Rainfordia opercularis, the rarely seen Flathead Perch, was recently captive bred for the first time by Todd Gardner. Image credit: Todd Gardner

Coming out of the ongoing collaborative efforts of the New England Aquarium (NEAq) and Roger Williams University, Dr. Andrew Rhyne and his associates at Roger Williams have added the Yasha White Ray Shrimp Goby, Stonogobiops yasha, to their list of captive-bred firsts, while Monika Schmück found success with the Caribbean Blue Reef Chromis, Chromis cyanea, at NEAq. [Editor’s Note – stay tuned to for an exclusive online look at the breeding of the Blue Reef Chromis!]

In the middle of the country Tim Morrissey and Andy Hinrichs, working at the Henry Doorly Zoo and Aquarium in Omaha, Nebraska, have raised the second species of Anthias to be bred in captivity, the Stocky Anthias, Pseudanthias hypselosoma.

Nearby, longtime hobbyist breeder Kathy Leahy has moved on from breeding clownfishes and become the first person in the world to successfully breed the Coral Beauty Angelfish, Centropyge bispinosa. Leahy was also the first to document her success with the elusive Ruby Dragonet (formally described as Synchiropus sycorax) just days ahead of Oceans, Reefs & Aquariums (ORA).

Two commercial facilities, ORA and Sustainable Aquatics, have also added new species to their repertoires. Dustin Dorton and his crew at ORA have had success with the Yellow-Breasted Dottyback, Pseudochromis coccinicauda, although they do not intend to put them into commercial production at this point; and Matthew Carberry of Sustainable Aquatics has added the Yellow-Belly Damselfish, Amblyglyphidodon leucogaster.

Six other species should be mentioned:

  • The Indian Ocean Oriental Sweetlips, Plectorhinchus vittatus, has been bred for human consumption.
  • The Humphead Wrasse, Cheilinus undulates, was successfully bred in 2004 as a food fish, but related species are being kept as aquarium fishes.
  • The Goldflake Angelfish, Apolemichthys xanthopunctatus, at Bali Aquarich.
  • The Kite Butterflyfish, Parachaetodon ocellatus, has been bred in Thailand, and there have been claims of success with Chaetodontoplus mesoleucus and Centropyge bicolor, although there is no published proof of the breeding of the latter two species at this time, so they can only be considered provisional additions.
A juvenile captive-bred Goldflake Angelfish, Apolemichthys xanthopunctatus, released by Bali Aquarich in 2016. Click to learn more now in our online bonus article! Image credit: Matt Pedersen

A juvenile captive-bred Goldflake Angelfish, Apolemichthys xanthopunctatus, released by Bali Aquarich in 2016. Click to learn more now in our online bonus article! Image credit: Matt Pedersen

As the list of fishes that have been successfully bred in captivity continues to grow, we must keep in mind the balance between captive breeding and sustainable wild collection. They are not mutually exclusive. We must also continue to support aquarists who are working with new species, whether they are helping to fund future projects or simply purchasing captive-bred fishes when they are available.

The new 2017 Captive Bred Marine Fish Species List now supersedes the 2016 listthe 2015 list, the 2014 list and the 2013 list. Color-coded perceived availability in the United States from January through September 2016, has been included this year:

Orange  Common Name = new to the list this year.
Pink Common Name = new to the list this year, but as a priorly overlooked accomplishment
Green = Commonly Available. Easy to find as a captive-bred fish, often from more than one source, throughout 2016.
Blue – Moderate to Low. Might have taken some searching, and availability may have been limited, but was reasonably obtainable as a captive-bred fish in 2016.
Purple = Scarce. Generally only one source or breeder is known, and potentially only a handful of specimens may have been available. You may have “had to know someone” or even know the breeder directly in order to obtain them as captive-bred fish during 2016.
Black = None. The authors and consulted parties were unaware of any retail availability of this species from a captive-bred source during 2016.

2017 Captive-Bred Marine Aquarium Species List Recap Summary
Total Number of Species in the Current List 330
Number of Species Added Since Prior List (including provisional listings) 18
Number of Species Commonly Available as Captive-Bred, Jan.-Sept. 2016 (CB) 27
Number of Species Moderately Available as CB 38
Number of Species Scarely Available as CB 29
Total Number of Species Available as CB 94
Number of Species Not Seen Avaialble as CB 236

Angelfishes (Pomacanthidae)

Apolemichthys arcuatus, Bandit Angelfish

Apolemichthys trimaculatus, Flagfin Angelfish

Apolemichthys xanthopunctatus, Goldflake Angelfish

Centropyge acanthops, African pygmy Angelfish

Centropyge argi, Cherub Angelfish

Centropyge bicolor, Bicolor Angelfish*

Centropyge bispinosa, Coral Beauty Angelfish

Centropyge colini,  Collins or Cocos Keeling Angelfish

Centropyge debelius, Debelius Angelfish

Centropyge fisheri, Fisher’s Angelfish

Centropyge flavissima, Lemonpeel Angelfish

Centropyge interruptus, Japanese Pygmy Angel

Centropyge joculator, Joculator Angelfish

Centropyge loricula, Flame Angelfish

Centropyge multicolor, Multicolor Angelfish

Centropyge potteri, Potter’s Angelfish

Centropyge resplendens, Resplendent Angelfish

Chaetodontoplus cephalareticulatus, Maze Angelfish

Chaetodonotplus duboulayi, Scribbled Angelfish

Chaetodontoplus mesoleucus, Singapore Angelfish*

Chaetodontoplus septentrionalis, Bluestriped Angelfish

Genicanthus personatus, Masked Angelfish

Genicanthus watenabei, Blackedged Angelfish

Holacanthus clarionensis, Clarion Angelfish

Holacanthus passer, Passer or King Angelfish

Paracentropyge multifasciata, Multibar Angelfish

Paracentropyge venusta, Purplemask Angelfish

Pomacanthus annularis, Annularis Angelfish

Pomacanthus arcuatus, Gray Angelfish

Pomacanthus asfur, Asfur Angelfish

Pomacanthus maculosus, Yellowbar Angelfish

Pomacanthus navarchus, Majestic or Blue Girdled Angelfish

Pomacanthus paru, French Angelfish

Pomacanthus semicirculatus, Koran Angelfish

Pomacanthus sexstriatus, Sixbar Angelfish

Anthias (Serranidae)

Pseudanthias hypselosoma, Stocky Anthias

Pseudanthias squamipinnis, Lyretail Anthias

Assessors (Plesiopidae) 

Assessor flavissimus, Yellow Assessor

Assessor macneilli, Blue Assessor

Assessor randalli, Randal’s Assessor

Basslets (Serranidae) 

Liopropoma carmabi, Candy Basslet

Liopropoma rubre, Swissguard Basslet

Rainfordia opercularis, Flathead Perch

Batfishes (Ephippidae) 

Chaetodipterus faber, Atlantic Spadefish

Platax bativianus, Zebra Batfish

Platax pinnatus, Pinnatus Batfish

Platax orbicularis, Orbiculate Batfish

Blennies (Blenniidae) 

Chasmodes bosquianus, Striped Blenny

Ecsenius gravieri, Red Sea Mimic Blenny

Ecsenius bicolor, Bicolor Blenny

Enchelyurus flavipes, Goldentail Comb-tooth Blenny

Hypleurochilus multifilis, Featherduster Blenny

Hypsoblennius hentz, Feather Blenny

Meiacanthus atrodorsalis, Forktail Blenny

Meiacanthus bundoon, Bundoon Blenny

Meiacanthus grammistes, Striped Fang Blenny

Meicanthus kamohari, Kamohara Blenny

Meiacanthus mossambicus, Mozambique Fang Blenny

Meiacanthus nigrolineatus, Blackline Fang Blenny

Meiacanthus oualanensis, Canary Fang Blenny

Meiacanthus smithi, Disco Blenny

Meiacanthus tongaensis, Fang Blenny (Tonga)

Parablennius marmoreus, Seaweed Blenny

Petroscirtes breviceps, Mimic Fang Blenny

Salaria pavo, Peacock Blenny

Scartella cristata, Molly Miller Blenny

Boxfishes (Ostraciidae)

Acanthostracion quadricornis, Scrawled Cowfish

Butterflyfishes (Chaetodontidae)

Chaetodon klienii, Klien’s, Orange or Sunburst Butterflyfish

Chaetodon milliaris, Milletseed or Lemon Butterflyfish

Cardinalfishes (Apogonidae)

Apogon notatus, Spotnape Cardinalfish

Apogonichthyoides melas, Black Cardinalfish

Apogonichthyoides nigripinnis, Bullseye Cardinalfish

Cheilodipterus quinquelineatus, 5 Lined Cardinalfish

Fowleria flammea, Red Stop Light Cardinalfish

Nectamia bandanensis, Bigeye Cardinalfish

Ostorhinchus compressus, Ochre-striped Cardinalfish

Ostorhinchus cyanosoma, Yellowstriped Cardinalfish

Ostorhinchus margaritophorus, Copper Lined Cardinalfish

Ostorhinchus quadrifasciatus, Two-striped Cardinalfish

Pterapogon kauderni, Banggai Cardinalfish

Pterapogon mirifica, Sailfin Cardinalfish

Sphaeramia nematoptera, Pajama Cardinalfish

Sphaeramia orbicularis, Orbic Cardinalfish

Zoramia leptacantha, Threadfin Cardinalfish

Marine Catfishes (Plotosidae)

Plotosus lineatus, Striped Eel Catfish

Clingfishes (Gobiesocidae) 

Gobiesox punctulatus, Stippled Clingfish

Gobiesox strumosus, Skilletfish

Clownfishes (Pomacentridae) 

Amphiprion akallopisos, Skunk Clownfish

Amphiprion akindynos, Barrier Reef Clownfish

Amphiprion allardi, Allard’s Clownfish

Amphiprion barberi, Fiji Barberi Clownfish

Amphiprion bicinctus, Red Sea (Two-Barred) Clownfish

Amphiprion chrysogaster, Mauritian Clownfish

Amphiprion chrysopterus, Orangefin Anemonefish

Amphiprion clarkii, Clarkii Clownfish

Amphiprion ephippium, Red Saddleback Clownfish

Amphiprion frenatus, Tomato Clownfish

Amphiprion latezonatus, Wide Band Clownfish

Amphiprion latifasciatus, Madagascar Clownfish

Amphiprion leucokranos, Whitebonnet Clownfish

Amphiprion mccullochi, McCulloch’s Clownfish

Amphiprion melanopus, Cinnamon Clownfish

Amphiprion nigripes, Blackfinned Clownfish

Amphiprion ocellaris, Ocellaris Clownfish

Amphiprion percula, Percula Clownfish

Amphiprion perideraion, Pink Skunk Clownfish

Amphiprion polymnus, Saddleback Clownfish

Amphiprion rubrocinctus, Australian Clownfish

Amphiprion sandaracinos, Orange Skunk Clownfish

Amphiprion sebae, Sebae Clownfish

Amphiprion tricinctus, Three-Band Clownfish

Premnas biaculeatus, Maroon Clownfish

Convict Blennies (Pholidichthyidae) 

Pholidichthys leucotaenia, Convict Blenny, Engineer Goby

Damselfishes (Pomacentridae)

Abudefduf saxatilis, Sergeant Major

Acanthochromis polyacanthus, Orange Line Chromis

Amblyglyphidodon aureus, Golden Damselfish

Amphyglyphidodon curacao, Staghorn Damselfish

Amblyglyphidodon leucogaster, Yellow-belly Damselfish

Amblyglyphidodon ternatensis, Ternate Damselfish

Chromis cyaneus, Caribbean Blue Reef Chromis

Chromis nitida, Barrier Reef Chromis

Chromis viridis, Blue Green Chromis

Chrysiptera cyanea, Blue Devil Damselfish

Chrysiptera hemicyanea, Azure Damselfish

Chrysiptera parasema, Yellowtail Damselfish

Chrysiptera rex, King Demoiselle

Chrysiptera taupou, Fiji Blue Devil

Dascyllus albisella, Whitespot Damselfish, Hawaiian Dascyllus

Dascyllus aruanus, Three Stripe Damselfish

Dascyllus trimaculatus, Three Spot Domino Damselfish

Hypsypops rubicundus, Garibaldi Damselfish

Microspathodon chrysurus, Jewel Damselfish

Neoglyphidodon crossi, Cross’s Damselfish

Neoglyphidodon melas, Bowtie Damselfish

Neoglyphidodon nigroris, Black and Gold Chromis

Neopomacentrus bankieri, Lyretail Damselfish

Neopomacentrus cyanomos, Regal Damselfish

Neopomacentrus filamentosus, Brown Damselfish

Neopomacentrus nemurus, Yellow-Tipped Damselfish

Neopomacentrus violascens, Violet Demoiselle

Pomacentrus amboinensis, Ambon Damselfish

Pomacentrus caeruleus, Caerulean Damselfish

Pomacentrus coelestis, Neon Damselfish

Pomacentrus nagasakiensis, Nagasaki Damselfish

Pomacentrus pavo, Sapphire Damselfish

Dartfishes (Ptereleotridae) 

Nemateleotris decora, Purple Firefish

Parioglossus cf. dotui, Dotui Dartfish

Dottybacks (Pseudochromidae) 

Congrogadus subducens, Wolf Blenny

Cypho purpurascens, Oblique Lined Dottyback

Labracinus cyclophthalmus, Red Dottyback

Labracinus lineatus, Lined Dottyback

Manonichthys alleni, Allen’s Dottyback

Manonichthys polynemus, Longfin Dottyback

Manonichthys splendens, Splendid Dottyback

Ogilbyina novaehollandiae, Australian Pseudochromis

Oxycercichthys veliferus, Sailfin Dottyback

Pictichromis diadema, Diadem Dottyback

Pictichromis paccagnellae, Bicolor or Royal Dottyback

Pictichromis porphyrea, Magenta Dottyback

Pseudochromis aldabraensis, Neon Dottyback

Pseudochromis bitaeniatus, Double Striped Dottyback

Pseudochromis coccinicauda, Yellow-breasted Dottyback

Pseudochromis cyanotaenia, Blue Bar Dottyback

Pseudochromis dilectus, Dilectus Dottyback

Pseudochromis elongatus, Red Head Elegant Dottyback

Pseudochromis flavivertex, Sunrise Dottyback

Pseudochromis fridmani, Orchid Dottyback

Pseudochromis fuscus, Dusky or Yellow Dottyback

Pseudochromis olivaceus, Olive Dottyback

Pseudochromis sankeyi, Sankey’s or Striped Dottyback

Pseudochromis springeri, Springer’s Dottyback

Pseudochromis steenei, Flamehead or Steen’s Dottyback

Pseudochromis tapeinosoma, Blackmargin Dottyback

Pseudochromis tonozukai, Tono’s or Orange Peel Dottyback

Pseudoplesiops wassi, Fleck fin Dottyback

Dragonets (Callionymidae) 

Callionymus bairdi, Lancer Dragonet

Callionymus enneactis, Mosaic Dragonet

Synchiropus ocellatus, Scooter Blenny

Synchiropus picturatus, Spotted Mandarin

Synchiropus splendidus, Green Mandarin

Synchiropus stellatus, Red Scooter Blenny

Synchiropus sycorax, Ruby Red Dragonet

Drums (Sciaenidae) 

Equetus lanceolatus, Jackknife Fish

Equetus punctatus, Spotted Drum

Pareques acuminatus, High Hat

Pareques umbrosus, Cubbyu

Filefishes (Monacanthidae) 

Acreichthys tomentosus, Bristletail Filefish

Acreichthys radiata, Radiated Filefish

Oxymonacanthus longirostris, Orange Spotted Filefish

Rudarius ercodes, Whitespotted Pygmy Filefish

Stephanolepis hispidus, Planehead Filefish

Flagtails (Kuhliidae)

Kuhlia mugil, Barred Flagtail

Frogfishes (Antennariidae) 

Rhycherus filamentosus, Tasseled Frogfish

Gobies (Gobiidae) 

Amblygobius linki, Link’s Goby

Amblygobius phalaena, Banded Sleeper Goby

Coryphopterus personatus, Masked Goby

Cryptocentroides gobiodes, Crested Oyster Goby

Cryptocentrus cinctus, Yellow Watchman Goby

Cryptocentrus fasciatus, Y-Bar Watchman Goby

Cryptocentrus leptocephalus, Pink-Speckled Shrimp Goby

Cryptocentrus lutheri, Luther’s Prawn-Goby

Elacatinus chancei, Shortstripe Goby

Elacatinus evelynae, Golden Neon or Sharknose Goby

Elacatinus figaro, Barber Goby

Elacatinus genie, Cleaning Goby

Elacatinus horsti, Yellowline Goby

Elacatinus louisae, Spotlight Goby

Elacatinus multifasciatus, Green Banded Goby

Elacatinus oceanops, Neon Goby

Elacatinus prochilos, Broadstripe Goby

Elacatinus puncticulatus, Red Headed Goby

Elacatinus randalli, Yellownose Goby

Elacatinus xanthiprora, Golden Goby

Eviota atriventris, Blackbelly Dwarfgoby

Eviota bifasciata, Twostripe Eviota

Eviota nigriventris, Red Neon Eviota Goby

Eviota punctulata, Finespot Eviota

Fusigobius pallidus, Transparent Cave Goby or Pale Sandgoby

Gobiodon citrinus, Citron Clown Goby

Gobiodon okinawae, Okinawan Goby

Gobiopsis quinquecincta, Jaguar Goby

Gobiosoma bosc, Naked Goby

Koumansetta hectori, Hector’s Goby

Koumansetta rainfordi, Rainford’s Goby

Lythrypnus dalli, Catalina Goby

Priolepis cincta, Girdled Goby

Stonogobiops yasha, Yasha or White Ray Goby

Tigrigobius macrodon, Tiger Goby (formerly Elacatinus macrodon)

Grammas (Grammatidae) 

Gramma loreto, Royal Gramma

Gramma melacara, Blackcap Basslet

Lipogramma klayi, Bicolor Basslet

Groupers (Serranidae) 

Chromileptes altivelisPanther or Humpback Grouper

Epinephelus lanceolatus, Giant or Bumblebee Grouper

Pectropomus leopardus, Coral Trout

Serranus subligarius, Belted Sandfish

Grunts (Haemulidae) 

Anisotremus virginicus, Porkfish

Haemulon chrysargyreum, Smallmouth Grunt

Haemulon flavolineatum, French Grunt**

Plectorhinchus vittatus, Indian Ocean Oriental Sweetlips

Hamlets (Serranidae) 

Hypoplectrus gemma, Blue Hamlet

Hypoplectrus guttavarius, Shy Hamlet

Hypoplectrus unicolor, Butter Hamlet

Jacks (Carangidae) 

Gnathanodon speciosus, Golden Trevally, Pilot Fish

Selene vomer, Lookdown

Jawfishes (Opistognathidae) 

Opistognathus aurifrons, Pearly Jawfish

Opistognathus macrognathus, Banded Jawfish

Opistognathus punctatus, Finespotted Jawfish

Labrasomid Blennies (Labrisomidae)

Paraclinus grandicomis, Horned Blenny

Pipefishes (Syngnathidae) 

Doryrhamphus excisus, Bluestripe Pipefish

Doryrhamphus janssi, Janss’s Pipefish

Dunckerocampus baldwini, Flame Pipefish, Red Striped Pipefish

Dunckerocampus dactyliophorus, Ringed Pipefish

Dunckerocampus naia, Naia Pipefish

Dunckerocampus pessuliferus, Yellow Banded Pipefish

Haliichthys taeniophorus, Ribboned Pipefish

Syngnathoides biaculeatus, Alligator pipefish

Syngnathus acus, Greater pipefish

Syngnathus floridae, Dusky Pipefish

Syngnathus fuscus, Northern Pipefish

Syngnathus leptorhynchus, Bay Pipefish

Syngnathus scovelli, Gulf Pipefish

Syngnathus typhle, Broadnosed Pipefish

Porcupinefishes (Diodontidae)

Diodon holocanthus, Longspined Porcupinefish

Puffers (Tetraodontidae) 

Arthoron nigropunctatus, Dog-faced Pufferfish

Canthigaster rostrata, Sharpnose Puffer

Lagocephalus spadiceus, Half-Smooth Golden Puffer

Sphoeroides annulatus, Bullseye Pufferfish

Sphoeroides maculatus, Northern Puffer

Rabbitfishes (Siganidae) 

Siganus canaliculatus, White-Spotted Spinefoot

Siganus fuscescens, Mottled spinefoot

Siganus guttatus, Oranged-spotted Rabbitfish

Siganus lineatus, Golden-Lined Spinefoot

Siganus rivulatus, Marbled Spinefoot

Siganus vermiculatus, Vermiculated Rabbitfish

Roundheads & Bettas (Plesiopidae) 

Calloplesiops altivelis, Marine Betta, Comet

Plesiops corallicola, Bluegill longfin

Trachinops taeniatus, Eastern Hulafish

Seadragons (Syngnathidae) 

Solegnathus spinosissimus, Spiny Seadragon

Phyllopteryx taeniolatus, Common or Weedy Seadragon

Seahorses (Syngnathidae) 

Hippocampus abdominalis, Bigbelly Seashorse

Hippocampus algiricus, West African Seahorse

Hippocampus angustus, Western Spiny Seahorse

Hippocampus barbouri, Barbour’s Seahorse

Hippocampus bargibanti, Bargibant’s Seahorse

Hippocampus breviceps, Short-Head Seahorse

Hippocampus capensis, Knysna Seahorse

Hippocampus comes, Tiger Tail Seahorse

Hippocampus coronatus, Crowned Seahorse

Hippocampus erectus, Lined Seahorse

Hippocampus fisheri, Fisher’s Seahorse

Hippocampus fuscus, Sea Pony

Hippocampus guttulatus, Long-Snouted Seahorse

Hippocampus hippocampus, Short Snouted Seahorse

Hippocampus histrix, Thorny Seahorse

Hippocampus ingens, Pacific Seahorse

Hippocampus kelloggi, Great Seahorse

Hippocampus kuda, Yellow or Common Seahorse (Hippocampus taeniopterus, currently considered a synonym of H. kuda, has also been reared)

Hippocampus patagonicus, Patagonian Seahorse

Hippocampus procerus, High-Crown Seahorse

Hippocampus reidi, Brazilian or Longsnout Seahorse

Hippocampus spinosissimus, Hedgehog seahorse

Hippocampus tuberculatus, Knobby Seahorse

Hippocampus trimaculatus, Longnose Seahorse

Hippocampus whitei, White’s Seahorse

Hippocampus zosterae, Dwarf Seahorse

Sharks, Bamboo (Hemiscylliidae) 

Chiloscyllium hasseltii, Hasselt’s Bamboo Shark

Chiloscyllium plagiosum, Whitespotted Bamboo Shark

Chiloscyllium punctatum, Brownbanded Bamboo Shark

Hemiscyllium hallistromi, Papuan Epaulette Shark

Hemiscyllium ocellatum, Epaulette Shark

Sharks, Bullhead (Heterodontidae) 

Heterodontus francisci, Horn Shark

Sharks, Cat (Scyliorhinidae)

Atelomycterus marmoratus, Coral Catshark

Shrimpfishes (Centriscidae) 

Aeoliscus strigatus, Razorfish, Shrimpfish

Snappers (Lutjanidae) 

Lutjanus sebae, Red Emperor Snapper

Whiptail Rays (Dasyatidae) 

Taeniura lymma, Bluespot Stingray

Tangs & Surgeonfishes (Acanthuridae)

Paracanthurus hepatus, Pacific Blue Tang

Zebrasoma flavescens, Yellow Tang

Toadfishes (Batrachoididae) 

Allenbatrachus grunniens, Grunting Toadfish

Opsanus tau, Oyster Toadfish

Triggerfishes (Balistidae) 

Balistes vetula, Queen Triggerfish

Balistoides conspicillum, Clown Triggerfish

Xanthichthys mento, Crosshatch Triggerfish

Triplefins (Tripterygiidae)

Enneapterygius etheostomus, Snake Blenny

Wrasses (Labridae) 

Cheilinus undulates, Humphead Wrasse

Halichoeres melanurus, Melanurus or Hoeven’s Wrasse

Halichoeres ornatissimus, Ornate, Ornamented, or Hawaiian Christmas Wrasse

Labroides dimidiatus, Cleaner Wrasse

Labroides phthirophagus, Hawaiian Cleaner Wrasse

Lachnolaimus maximus, Hogfish

Parajulis poecilepterus, Rainbow Wrasse

*provisional listing, minimal to no published proof, but from trusted source.

**availability ranking has been changed to reflect additional information that came after print publication.

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