CORAL’S FIRST-EVER CAPTIVE-BRED MARINE AQUARIUM INVERTEBRATES LIST
by Tal Sweet and Matt Pedersen
CORAL Magazine’s first annual listing of captive-bred marine aquarium invertebrate species, current through the end of 2017
Excerpt from the March/April 2019 issue of CORAL Magazine – subscribe today!
The propagation of fishes and corals is a high-profile endeavor, but aquarists seldom give a second thought to the clean-up crews—the inverts, occasionally well-endowed aesthetically, that we invite to live in our reef tanks. But, as some researchers have cautioned, little is known about the sustainable harvest of wild invertebrates.
While today’s Marine Breeding Initiative (MBI) certainly supports aquarists working to breed invertebrates, nothing has really replaced the momentum generated by Project DIBS (Desirable Invertebrate Breeding Society). Some think it’s high time to bring the breeding of these often-overlooked invertebrates to the center stage. The MBI’s nearly 10-year-old database has yielded a preliminary list of marine aquarium invertebrate species that have been bred in captivity. Those original data have been augmented by insider knowledge and insights from other aquarists. The result? For the first time, CORAL is offering a comprehensive look at the captive breeding of motile tropical ornamental invertebrates for the marine aquarium hobby and trade.
WHAT THIS LIST ISN’T
This list intentionally excludes invertebrates cultured as food organisms, whether for adult or larval fishes and invertebrates; you won’t find brine and Mysis shrimps, rotifers, or copepods on the list. Also intentionally excluded are those that propagate asexually (by fragmentation and division); we have focused squarely on the often-difficult task of sexually propagating marine invertebrates, many of which exist as captive-propagated organisms only as byproducts of other research or food production (for example, Tridacnid clams).
This list also excludes the propagation, sexual or otherwise, of all sessile Cnidarians (stony corals, soft corals, anemones, and so forth), at least for this first year, but does include some examples of captive-bred sea jellies. In the future, the list may expand to include a proper accounting of sexually-propagated corals.
It must be acknowledged that this list is incomplete; some species that have been propagated have very likely been missed. However, the hope is that this list will spark discussion and information-gathering. Please review it, then comment and share additional data that may be incorporated into a more robust offering for 2019 and beyond.
The new 2018 Captive-Bred Marine Invertebrate Species List. Color-coded perceived availability in the United States from November, 2016, through January, 2018, has been included this year:
Orange Common Name = Starting in 2019; all species are “new to the list” this year!
Pink Common Name = Starting in 2019; all species are “new to the list” this year!
Green = Commonly Available. Easy to find as a captive-bred marine invertebrate, often from more than one source, throughout 2017.
Blue = Moderate to Low. Might have taken some searching, and availability may have been limited, potentially only with one source, but was reasonably obtainable as a captive-bred marine invertebrate in 2017.
Purple = Scarce. Generally, only one source or breeder is known, and potentially only a handful of specimens may have been available. You may have “had to know someone” or even know the breeder directly in order to obtain them as captive-bred marine invertebrates during 2017.
Black = None. The authors and consulted parties were unaware of any retail availability of this species from a captive-bred source during 2017.
Euprymna scolopes, Hawaiian Bobtail Squid
Octopus bimaculoides, California Two-Spot Octopus
Octopus briareus, Caribbean Reef Octopus
Octopus chierchiae, Lesser Pacific Striped Octopus
Octopus mercatoris, Caribbean Dwarf Octopus
Sepia bandensis, Dwarf Banded Cuttlefish
Sepia latimanus, Broadclub Cuttlefish
Sepia officinalis, Common Cuttlefish
Sepia pharaonis, Pharaoh Cuttlefish
Sepioloidea lineolata, Striped Pajama Squid
Sepioteuthis lessoniana, Bigfin Reef Squid
Metasepia pfefferi, Flamboyant Cuttlefish
Hippopus hippopus, Bear Paw Clam
Hippopus porcellanus, China Clam
Tridacna crocea, Boring Clam
Tridacna derasa, Smooth Giant Clam
Tridacna gigas, Giant Clam
Tridacna maxima, Maxima Clam
Tridacna noae, Teardrop Maxima Clam
Tridacna squamosa, Fluted Giant Clam
Tridacna squamosina (syn. T. costata)
Mithraculus forceps, Red-Ridged Clinging Crab
Mithraculus sculptus, Emerald Crab
Petrolisthes galathinus, Banded Porcelain Crab
Calcinus laevimanus, Dwarf Zebra Hermit Crab
Calcinus latens, Hidden Hermit Crab
Clibanarius digueti, Mexican Red Leg Hermit Crab
Clibanarius tricolor, Dwarf Blue Leg Hermit Crab
Paguristes cadenati, Scarlet Reef Hermit Crab
Holothuria fuscopunctata, Caledonian Sand Sifting Cucumber
Holothuria scabra, Golden Sandfish
Aurelia aurita, Moon Jellyfish
Cassiopea spp., Upside-Down Jellyfish
Mastigias papua, Spotted Lagoon Jellyfish
Phyllorhiza punctata, Australian Spotted Jellyfish
Rhopilema esculentum, Flame Jellyfish
Sanderia malayensis, Amakusa Jellyfish
Aplysia brasiliana, Mottled Sea Hare (may be Aplysia fasciata; see http://www.seaslugforum.net/find/12545)
Aplysia californica, California Sea Hare
Aplysia oculifera, Spotted Sea Hare
Berghia verrucicornis or Aeolidiella stephanieae, Berghia or Aiptasia-Eating Nudibranch
Bursatella leachii, Ragged Sea Hare
Elysia clarki, Lettuce Nudibranch
Diadema antillarum, Black Longspine Urchin, Long-Spined Sea Urchin
Lytechinus variegates, Variegated Sea Urchin
Mespilia globulus, Blue Tuxedo Urchin
Ancylomenes pedersoni, Pederson’s Anemone Shrimp
Hymenocera elegans, Harlequin Shrimp
Hymenocera picta, Harlequin Shrimp (Hawaiian/East-Central Pacific form)
Lysmata amboinensis, Skunk Cleaner Shrimp
Lysmata ankeri, Peppermint Shrimp
Lysmata boggessi, Peppermint Shrimp
Lysmata debelius, Fire Shrimp
Lysmata grabhami, Caribbean Cleaner Shrimp
Lysmata kuekenthali, Kükenthal’s Cleaner Shrimp
Lysmata pederseni, Pedersen’s Peppermint Shrimp
Lysmata prima, Striped Cleaner Shrimp
Lysmata rafa, Rafael’s Peppermint Shrimp
Lysmata rathbunae, Rathbun Cleaner Shrimp
Lysmata seticaudata, Mediterranean Cleaner Shrimp
Lysmata vitatta, Indian Lined Shrimp
Lysmata wurdemanni, Peppermint Shrimp
Periclimenes yucatanicus, Spotted Cleaner Shrimp
Rhynchocinetes durbanensis, Camel Shrimp
Stenopus scutellatus, Gold Coral Banded Shrimp
Thor amboinensis, Sexy Shrimp
Cerithium atratum, Dark Cerith Snail
Columbellid cf. euplica, DIBS Columbellid Snail
Haliotis sp., Abalone*
Lithopoma tectum, Astrea Snail, West Indian Starsnail
Nassarius cf. pauperi, Nassarius Snail
Scutus unguis, Black Scutus
Stomatella varia, Variable Stomatella Snail
Strombus alatus, Florida Fighting Conch
Strombus costatus, Milk Conch
Strombus gigas, Queen Conch
Strombus maculatus, Pacific Spotted Conch
Strombus raninus, Hawkwing Conch
Trochus niloticus, Giant Top Shell
Trochus sp. “Blackfoot Trochus,” Blackfoot Trochus Snail
Turbo argyrostomus sandwicensis, Hawaiian Top Shell, Hawaiian Turbo Snail
*This species was added after the print edition in 2018.
We welcome your comments and feedback on this inaugural list. You may also wish to review the 2018 Captive-Bred Marine Ornamental Fish List, Part I of our annual recap.